Create a data-model

In simple cases you can build data-models using java.lang and java.util classes and custom JavaBeans:

  • Use java.lang.String for strings.

  • Use java.lang.Number subclasses for numbers.

  • Use java.lang.Boolean for boolean values.

  • Use java.util.Date and its subclasses for date/time values

  • Use java.util.List or Java arrays for sequences.

  • Use java.util.Map with String keys for hashes.

  • Use your custom bean class for hashes where the items correspond to the bean properties. For example the price property ( getPrice() ) of product can be get as product.price . (The actions of the beans can be exposed as well; see much later here)

For example, let's build the data-model of the first example of the Template Author's Guide. For convenience, here it is again:

  +- user = "Big Joe"
  +- latestProduct
      +- url = "products/greenmouse.html"
      +- name = "green mouse"

This Java code fragment that builds this data-model:

// Create the root hash. We use a Map here, but it could be a JavaBean too.
Map<String, Object> root = new HashMap<>();

// Put string "user" into the root
root.put("user", "Big Joe");

// Create the "latestProduct" hash. We use a JavaBean here, but it could be a Map too.
Product latest = new Product();
latest.setName("green mouse");
// and put it into the root
root.put("latestProduct", latest);

As demonstrated above, for hashes (something that stores other named items) you can use either a Map or any kind of public class that has public getXxx / isXxx methods as prescribed by the JavaBeans specification. Like the above Product class could be something like:

 * Product bean; note that it must be a public class!
public class Product {

    private String url;
    private String name;

    // As per the JavaBeans spec., this defines the "url" bean property
    // It must be public!
    public String getUrl() {
        return url;

    public void setUrl(String url) {
        this.url = url;

    // As per the JavaBean spec., this defines the "name" bean property
    // It must be public!
    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setName(String name) { = name;


Regardless if latestProduct is a Map that contains the "name" and "url" keys, or it's a JavaBean as shown above, in the template you can use ${} . The root itself need not be a Map either; it could be an object with getUser() and getLastestProduct() methods too.


The behavior described here only stands if the value of the object_wrapper configuration setting is something that's used in almost all real world setups anyway. Anything that the ObjectWrapper wraps to be a hash (something that implements the TemplateHashModel interface) can be used as the root, and can be traversed in templates with the dot and [] operators. Something that it doesn't wrap to be a hash can't be used as the root or be traversed like that.