Lower Bounded Wildcards

The Upper Bounded Wildcards section shows that an upper bounded wildcard restricts the unknown type to be a specific type or a subtype of that type and is represented using the extends keyword. In a similar way, a lower bounded wildcard restricts the unknown type to be a specific type or a super type of that type.

A lower bounded wildcard is expressed using the wildcard character (' ? '), following by the super keyword, followed by its lower bound : \<? super A\> .


You can specify an upper bound for a wildcard, or you can specify a lower bound, but you cannot specify both.

Say you want to write a method that puts Integer objects into a list. To maximize flexibility, you would like the method to work on List\<Integer\> , List\<Number\> , and List\<Object\> — anything that can hold Integer values.

To write the method that works on lists of Integer and the supertypes of Integer , such as Integer , Number , and Object , you would specify List\<? super Integer\> . The term List\<Integer\> is more restrictive than List\<? super Integer\> because the former matches a list of type Integer only, whereas the latter matches a list of any type that is a supertype of Integer .

The following code adds the numbers 1 through 10 to the end of a list:

public static void addNumbers(List<? super Integer> list) {
    for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) {

The Guidelines for Wildcard Use section provides guidance on when to use upper bounded wildcards and when to use lower bounded wildcards.