External Resources

XML, Schema, and XSLT standards support the following constructs that require external resources. The default behavior of the JDK XML processors is to make a connection and fetch the external resources as specified.

  • External DTD: references an external Document Type Definition (DTD), example: \<!DOCTYPE root_element SYSTEM "url"\>

  • External Entity Reference: refer to external data, syntax: \<!ENTITY name SYSTEM "url"\>
    General entity reference such as the following:

<?xml version="1.0" standalone="no" ?>
<!DOCTYPE doc [<!ENTITY otherFile SYSTEM "otherFile.xml">]>
  • External Parameter Entities, syntax \<!ENTITY % name SYSTEM uri\> . For example:
<?xml version="1.0" standalone="no"?>
    <!DOCTYPE doc [
      <!ENTITY % foo SYSTEM "http://www.example.com/student.dtd"<
  • XInclude: include an external infoset in an XML document

  • Reference to XML Schema components using schemaLocation attribute, and import and include elements. Example: schemaLocation="http://www\.example\.com/schema/bar\.xsd"

  • Combining style sheets using import or include elements: syntax: \<xsl:include href="include\.xsl"/\>

  • xml-stylesheet processing instruction: used to include a stylesheet in an xml document, syntax: \<?xml\-stylesheet href="foo\.xsl" type="text/xsl"?\>

  • XSLT document\(\) function: used to access nodes in an external XML document. For example, \<xsl:variable name="dummy" select="document\('DocumentFunc2\.xml'\)"/\> .