2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include generic binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a
.tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, and binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.
This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution on Unix/Linux platforms. For other platform-specific binary package formats, see the other platform-specific sections in this manual. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows”. See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” on how to obtain MySQL in different distribution formats.
MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form
is a number (for example,
OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example,
If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as Yum or APT, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check for configuration files such as
/etc/mysqldirectory and delete them.
MySQL has a dependency on the
libaiolibrary. Data directory initialization and subsequent server startup steps will fail if this library is not installed locally. If necessary, install it using the appropriate package manager. For example, on Yum-based systems:
shell> yum search libaio # search for info shell> yum install libaio # install library
Or, on APT-based systems:
shell> apt-cache search libaio # search for info shell> apt-get install libaio1 # install library
For MySQL 5.7.19 and later: Support for Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) has been added to the generic Linux build, which has a dependency now on the
libnumalibrary; if the library has not been installed on your system, use you system's package manager to search for and install it (see the preceding item for some sample commands).
SLES 11: As of MySQL 5.7.19, the Linux Generic tarball package format is EL6 instead of EL5. As a side effect, the MySQL client bin/mysql needs
A workaround is to create a symlink, such as ln -s libncurses.so.5.6 /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 on 64-bit systems or ln -s libncurses.so.5.6 /lib/libtinfo.so.5 on 32-bit systems.
To install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically
/usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the following table.
Table 2.3 MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package
|Directory||Contents of Directory|
||mysqld server, client and utility programs|
||MySQL manual in Info format|
||Unix manual pages|
||Include (header) files|
||Error messages, dictionary, and SQL for database installation|
||Miscellaneous support files|
Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. See Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.
To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the command sequence looks like this:
shell> groupadd mysql shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql shell> cd /usr/local shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql shell> cd mysql shell> mkdir mysql-files shell> chown mysql:mysql mysql-files shell> chmod 750 mysql-files shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql & # Next command is optional shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
This procedure assumes that you have
root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (Solaris) command.
mysql-files directory provides a convenient location to use as the value for the
secure_file_priv system variable, which limits import and export operations to a specific directory. See Section 5.1.7, “Server System Variables”.
A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.
If your system does not already have a user and group to use for running mysqld, you may need to create them. The following commands add the
mysql group and the
mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of
mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix/Linux, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.
shell> groupadd mysql shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the
-s /bin/false options to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit these options if your useradd does not support them.
Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under
/usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in
/usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as
shell> cd /usr/local
Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL”. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.
Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has
z option support:
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
The tar command creates a directory named
To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU
gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the
z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.
GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as
/usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/ .
If your tar does not have
z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
Next, create a symbolic link to the installation directory created by tar:
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
ln command makes a symbolic link to the installation directory. This enables you to refer more easily to it as
/usr/local/mysql. To avoid having to type the path name of client programs always when you are working with MySQL, you can add the
/usr/local/mysql/bin directory to your
shell> export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin
The remainder of the installation process involves setting distribution ownership and access permissions, initializing the data directory, starting the MySQL server, and setting up the configuration file. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.