6.1.5 How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
On Windows, you can run the server as a Windows service using a normal user account.
On Linux, for installations performed using a MySQL repository, RPM packages, or Debian packages, the MySQL server mysqld should be started by the local
mysql operating system user. Starting by another operating system user is not supported by the init scripts that are included as part of the installation.
On Unix (or Linux for installations performed using
tar.gz packages) , the MySQL server mysqld can be started and run by any user. However, you should avoid running the server as the Unix
root user for security reasons. To change mysqld to run as a normal unprivileged Unix user
user_name, you must do the following:
Stop the server if it is running (use mysqladmin shutdown).
Change the database directories and files so that
user_namehas privileges to read and write files in them (you might need to do this as the Unix
shell> chown -R user_name /path/to/mysql/datadir
If you do not do this, the server will not be able to access databases or tables when it runs as
If directories or files within the MySQL data directory are symbolic links,
chown -Rmight not follow symbolic links for you. If it does not, you will also need to follow those links and change the directories and files they point to.
Start the server as user
user_name. Another alternative is to start mysqld as the Unix
rootuser and use the
--user=option. mysqld starts, then switches to run as the Unix user
user_namebefore accepting any connections.
To start the server as the given user automatically at system startup time, specify the user name by adding a
useroption to the
[mysqld]group of the
/etc/my.cnfoption file or the
my.cnfoption file in the server's data directory. For example:
If your Unix machine itself is not secured, you should assign passwords to the MySQL
root account in the grant tables. Otherwise, any user with a login account on that machine can run the mysql client with a
--user=root option and perform any operation. (It is a good idea to assign passwords to MySQL accounts in any case, but especially so when other login accounts exist on the server host.) See Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.