10.3.2 Server Character Set and Collation
MySQL Server has a server character set and a server collation. By default, these are
latin1_swedish_ci, but they can be set explicitly at server startup on the command line or in an option file and changed at runtime.
Initially, the server character set and collation depend on the options that you use when you start mysqld. You can use
--character-set-server for the character set. Along with it, you can add
--collation-server for the collation. If you don't specify a character set, that is the same as saying
--character-set-server=latin1. If you specify only a character set (for example,
latin1) but not a collation, that is the same as saying
latin1_swedish_ci is the default collation for
latin1. Therefore, the following three commands all have the same effect:
mysqld mysqld --character-set-server=latin1 mysqld --character-set-server=latin1 \ --collation-server=latin1_swedish_ci
One way to change the settings is by recompiling. To change the default server character set and collation when building from sources, use the
DEFAULT_COLLATION options for CMake. For example:
cmake . -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=latin1
cmake . -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=latin1 \ -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=latin1_german1_ci
Both mysqld and CMake verify that the character set/collation combination is valid. If not, each program displays an error message and terminates.
The server character set and collation are used as default values if the database character set and collation are not specified in
CREATE DATABASE statements. They have no other purpose.