11.2 Date and Time Data Types
- 11.2.1 Date and Time Data Type Syntax
- 11.2.2 The DATE, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP Types
- 11.2.3 The TIME Type
- 11.2.4 The YEAR Type
- 11.2.5 2-Digit YEAR(2) Limitations and Migrating to 4-Digit YEAR
- 11.2.6 Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME
- 11.2.7 Fractional Seconds in Time Values
- 11.2.8 Conversion Between Date and Time Types
- 11.2.9 2-Digit Years in Dates
The date and time data types for representing temporal values are
YEAR. Each temporal type has a range of valid values, as well as a “zero” value that may be used when you specify an invalid value that MySQL cannot represent. The
DATETIME types have special automatic updating behavior, described in Section 11.2.6, “Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME”.
For information about storage requirements of the temporal data types, see Section 11.7, “Data Type Storage Requirements”.
For descriptions of functions that operate on temporal values, see Section 12.6, “Date and Time Functions”.
Keep in mind these general considerations when working with date and time types:
MySQL retrieves values for a given date or time type in a standard output format, but it attempts to interpret a variety of formats for input values that you supply (for example, when you specify a value to be assigned to or compared to a date or time type). For a description of the permitted formats for date and time types, see Section 9.1.3, “Date and Time Literals”. It is expected that you supply valid values. Unpredictable results may occur if you use values in other formats.
Although MySQL tries to interpret values in several formats, date parts must always be given in year-month-day order (for example,
'98-09-04'), rather than in the month-day-year or day-month-year orders commonly used elsewhere (for example,
'04-09-98'). To convert strings in other orders to year-month-day order, the
STR_TO_DATE()function may be useful.
Dates containing 2-digit year values are ambiguous because the century is unknown. MySQL interprets 2-digit year values using these rules:
Year values in the range
Year values in the range
See also Section 11.2.9, “2-Digit Years in Dates”.
Conversion of values from one temporal type to another occurs according to the rules in Section 11.2.8, “Conversion Between Date and Time Types”.
MySQL automatically converts a date or time value to a number if the value is used in numeric context and vice versa.
By default, when MySQL encounters a value for a date or time type that is out of range or otherwise invalid for the type, it converts the value to the “zero” value for that type. The exception is that out-of-range
TIMEvalues are clipped to the appropriate endpoint of the
By setting the SQL mode to the appropriate value, you can specify more exactly what kind of dates you want MySQL to support. (See Section 5.1.10, “Server SQL Modes”.) You can get MySQL to accept certain dates, such as
'2009-11-31', by enabling the
ALLOW_INVALID_DATESSQL mode. This is useful when you want to store a “possibly wrong” value which the user has specified (for example, in a web form) in the database for future processing. Under this mode, MySQL verifies only that the month is in the range from 1 to 12 and that the day is in the range from 1 to 31.
MySQL permits you to store dates where the day or month and day are zero in a
DATETIMEcolumn. This is useful for applications that need to store birthdates for which you may not know the exact date. In this case, you simply store the date as
'2009-01-00'. However, with dates such as these, you should not expect to get correct results for functions such as
DATE_ADD()that require complete dates. To disallow zero month or day parts in dates, enable the
MySQL permits you to store a “zero” value of
'0000-00-00'as a “dummy date.” In some cases, this is more convenient than using
NULLvalues, and uses less data and index space. To disallow
'0000-00-00', enable the
“Zero” date or time values used through Connector/ODBC are converted automatically to
NULLbecause ODBC cannot handle such values.
The following table shows the format of the “zero” value for each type. The “zero” values are special, but you can store or refer to them explicitly using the values shown in the table. You can also do this using the values
0, which are easier to write. For temporal types that include a date part (
TIMESTAMP), use of these values may produce warning or errors. The precise behavior depends on which, if any, of the strict and
NO_ZERO_DATE SQL modes are enabled; see Section 5.1.10, “Server SQL Modes”.