14.12.1 InnoDB Disk I/O
InnoDB uses asynchronous disk I/O where possible, by creating a number of threads to handle I/O operations, while permitting other database operations to proceed while the I/O is still in progress. On Linux and Windows platforms,
InnoDB uses the available OS and library functions to perform “native” asynchronous I/O. On other platforms,
InnoDB still uses I/O threads, but the threads may actually wait for I/O requests to complete; this technique is known as “simulated” asynchronous I/O.
InnoDB can determine there is a high probability that data might be needed soon, it performs read-ahead operations to bring that data into the buffer pool so that it is available in memory. Making a few large read requests for contiguous data can be more efficient than making several small, spread-out requests. There are two read-ahead heuristics in
In sequential read-ahead, if
InnoDBnotices that the access pattern to a segment in the tablespace is sequential, it posts in advance a batch of reads of database pages to the I/O system.
In random read-ahead, if
InnoDBnotices that some area in a tablespace seems to be in the process of being fully read into the buffer pool, it posts the remaining reads to the I/O system.
For information about configuring read-ahead heuristics, see Section 184.108.40.206, “Configuring InnoDB Buffer Pool Prefetching (Read-Ahead)”.
InnoDB uses a novel file flush technique involving a structure called the doublewrite buffer, which is enabled by default in most cases (
innodb_doublewrite=ON). It adds safety to recovery following a crash or power outage, and improves performance on most varieties of Unix by reducing the need for
Before writing pages to a data file,
InnoDB first writes them to a contiguous tablespace area called the doublewrite buffer. Only after the write and the flush to the doublewrite buffer has completed does
InnoDB write the pages to their proper positions in the data file. If there is an operating system, storage subsystem, or mysqld process crash in the middle of a page write (causing a torn page condition),
InnoDB can later find a good copy of the page from the doublewrite buffer during recovery.
If system tablespace files (“ibdata files”) are located on Fusion-io devices that support atomic writes, doublewrite buffering is automatically disabled and Fusion-io atomic writes are used for all data files. Because the doublewrite buffer setting is global, doublewrite buffering is also disabled for data files residing on non-Fusion-io hardware. This feature is only supported on Fusion-io hardware and is only enabled for Fusion-io NVMFS on Linux. To take full advantage of this feature, an
innodb_flush_method setting of
O_DIRECT is recommended.