23.5.3 Updatable and Insertable Views
Some views are updatable and references to them can be used to specify tables to be updated in data change statements. That is, you can use them in statements such as
INSERT to update the contents of the underlying table. Derived tables can also be specified in multiple-table
DELETE statements, but can only be used for reading data to specify rows to be updated or deleted. Generally, the view references must be updatable, meaning that they may be merged and not materialized. Composite views have more complex rules.
For a view to be updatable, there must be a one-to-one relationship between the rows in the view and the rows in the underlying table. There are also certain other constructs that make a view nonupdatable. To be more specific, a view is not updatable if it contains any of the following:
Subquery in the select list
Before MySQL 5.7.11, subqueries in the select list fail for
INSERT, but are okay for
DELETE. As of MySQL 5.7.11, that is still true for nondependent subqueries. For dependent subqueries in the select list, no data change statements are permitted.
Certain joins (see additional join discussion later in this section)
Reference to nonupdatable view in the
Subquery in the
WHEREclause that refers to a table in the
Refers only to literal values (in this case, there is no underlying table to update)
ALGORITHM = TEMPTABLE(use of a temporary table always makes a view nonupdatable)
A generated column in a view is considered updatable because it is possible to assign to it. However, if such a column is updated explicitly, the only permitted value is
DEFAULT. For information about generated columns, see Section 184.108.40.206, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.
It is sometimes possible for a multiple-table view to be updatable, assuming that it can be processed with the
MERGE algorithm. For this to work, the view must use an inner join (not an outer join or a
UNION). Also, only a single table in the view definition can be updated, so the
SET clause must name only columns from one of the tables in the view. Views that use
UNION ALL are not permitted even though they might be theoretically updatable.
With respect to insertability (being updatable with
INSERT statements), an updatable view is insertable if it also satisfies these additional requirements for the view columns:
There must be no duplicate view column names.
The view must contain all columns in the base table that do not have a default value.
The view columns must be simple column references. They must not be expressions, such as these:
3.14159 col1 + 3 UPPER(col2) col3 / col4 (subquery)
MySQL sets a flag, called the view updatability flag, at
CREATE VIEW time. The flag is set to
YES (true) if
DELETE (and similar operations) are legal for the view. Otherwise, the flag is set to
NO (false). The
IS_UPDATABLE column in the
INFORMATION_SCHEMA.VIEWS table displays the status of this flag.
If a view is not updatable, statements such
INSERT are illegal and are rejected. (Even if a view is updatable, it might not be possible to insert into it, as described elsewhere in this section.)
IS_UPDATABLE flag may be unreliable if a view depends on one or more other views, and one of these underlying views is updated. Regardless of the
IS_UPDATABLE value, the server keeps track of the updatability of a view and correctly rejects data change operations to views that are not updatable. If the
IS_UPDATABLE value for a view has become inaccurate to due to changes to underlying views, the value can be updated by deleting and re-creating the view.
For the following discussion, suppose that these tables and views exist:
CREATE TABLE t1 (x INTEGER); CREATE TABLE t2 (c INTEGER); CREATE VIEW vmat AS SELECT SUM(x) AS s FROM t1; CREATE VIEW vup AS SELECT * FROM t2; CREATE VIEW vjoin AS SELECT * FROM vmat JOIN vup ON vmat.s=vup.c;
INSERT: The insert table of an
INSERTstatement may be a view reference that is merged. If the view is a join view, all components of the view must be updatable (not materialized). For a multiple-table updatable view,
INSERTcan work if it inserts into a single table.
This statement is invalid because one component of the join view is nonupdatable:
INSERT INTO vjoin (c) VALUES (1);
This statement is valid; the view contains no materialized components:
INSERT INTO vup (c) VALUES (1);
UPDATE: The table or tables to be updated in an
UPDATEstatement may be view references that are merged. If a view is a join view, at least one component of the view must be updatable (this differs from
In a multiple-table
UPDATEstatement, the updated table references of the statement must be base tables or updatable view references. Nonupdated table references may be materialized views or derived tables.
This statement is valid; column
cis from the updatable part of the join view:
UPDATE vjoin SET c=c+1;
This statement is invalid; column
xis from the nonupdatable part:
UPDATE vjoin SET x=x+1;
This statement is valid; the updated table reference of the multiple-table
UPDATEis an updatable view (
UPDATE vup JOIN (SELECT SUM(x) AS s FROM t1) AS dt ON ... SET c=c+1;
This statement is invalid; it tries to update a materialized derived table:
UPDATE vup JOIN (SELECT SUM(x) AS s FROM t1) AS dt ON ... SET s=s+1;
This statement is invalid because the view is a join view:
DELETE vjoin WHERE ...;
This statement is valid because the view is a merged (updatable) view:
DELETE vup WHERE ...;
This statement is valid because it deletes from a merged (updatable) view:
DELETE vup FROM vup JOIN (SELECT SUM(x) AS s FROM t1) AS dt ON ...;
Additional discussion and examples follow.
Earlier discussion in this section pointed out that a view is not insertable if not all columns are simple column references (for example, if it contains columns that are expressions or composite expressions). Although such a view is not insertable, it can be updatable if you update only columns that are not expressions. Consider this view:
CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT col1, 1 AS col2 FROM t;
This view is not insertable because
col2 is an expression. But it is updatable if the update does not try to update
col2. This update is permissible:
UPDATE v SET col1 = 0;
This update is not permissible because it attempts to update an expression column:
UPDATE v SET col2 = 0;
If a table contains an
AUTO_INCREMENT column, inserting into an insertable view on the table that does not include the
AUTO_INCREMENT column does not change the value of
LAST_INSERT_ID(), because the side effects of inserting default values into columns not part of the view should not be visible.