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turtle — Turtle graphics
Source code: Lib/turtle.py
Introduction
Turtle graphics is a popular way for introducing programming to kids. It was part of the original Logo programming language developed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon in 1967.
Imagine a robotic turtle starting at (0, 0) in the xy plane. After an import turtle
, give it the command turtle.forward(15)
, and it moves (onscreen!) 15 pixels in the direction it is facing, drawing a line as it moves. Give it the command turtle.right(25)
, and it rotates inplace 25 degrees clockwise.
Turtle star
Turtle can draw intricate shapes using programs that repeat simple moves.
from turtle import *
color('red', 'yellow')
begin_fill()
while True:
forward(200)
left(170)
if abs(pos()) < 1:
break
end_fill()
done()
By combining together these and similar commands, intricate shapes and pictures can easily be drawn.
The turtle
module is an extended reimplementation of the samenamed module from the Python standard distribution up to version Python 2.5.
It tries to keep the merits of the old turtle module and to be (nearly) 100% compatible with it. This means in the first place to enable the learning programmer to use all the commands, classes and methods interactively when using the module from within IDLE run with the n
switch.
The turtle module provides turtle graphics primitives, in both objectoriented and procedureoriented ways. Because it uses tkinter
for the underlying graphics, it needs a version of Python installed with Tk support.
The objectoriented interface uses essentially two+two classes:
The
TurtleScreen
class defines graphics windows as a playground for the drawing turtles. Its constructor needs atkinter.Canvas
or aScrolledCanvas
as argument. It should be used whenturtle
is used as part of some application.The function
Screen()
returns a singleton object of aTurtleScreen
subclass. This function should be used whenturtle
is used as a standalone tool for doing graphics. As a singleton object, inheriting from its class is not possible.All methods of TurtleScreen/Screen also exist as functions, i.e. as part of the procedureoriented interface.
RawTurtle
(alias:RawPen
) defines Turtle objects which draw on aTurtleScreen
. Its constructor needs a Canvas, ScrolledCanvas or TurtleScreen as argument, so the RawTurtle objects know where to draw.Derived from RawTurtle is the subclass
Turtle
(alias:Pen
), which draws on “the”Screen
instance which is automatically created, if not already present.All methods of RawTurtle/Turtle also exist as functions, i.e. part of the procedureoriented interface.
The procedural interface provides functions which are derived from the methods of the classes Screen
and Turtle
. They have the same names as the corresponding methods. A screen object is automatically created whenever a function derived from a Screen method is called. An (unnamed) turtle object is automatically created whenever any of the functions derived from a Turtle method is called.
To use multiple turtles on a screen one has to use the objectoriented interface.
Note
In the following documentation the argument list for functions is given. Methods, of course, have the additional first argument self which is omitted here.
Overview of available Turtle and Screen methods
Turtle methods
 Turtle motion

 Move and draw
 Tell Turtle’s state
 Setting and measurement
 Pen control

 Drawing state
 Color control
 Filling
 More drawing control
 Turtle state

 Visibility
 Appearance
 Using events
 Special Turtle methods
Methods of RawTurtle/Turtle and corresponding functions
Most of the examples in this section refer to a Turtle instance called turtle
.
Turtle motion
turtle.
forward
( distance )turtle.
fd
( distance )
 Parameters

distance – a number (integer or float)
Move the turtle forward by the specified distance, in the direction the turtle is headed.
>>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.forward(25) >>> turtle.position() (25.00,0.00) >>> turtle.forward(75) >>> turtle.position() (50.00,0.00)
turtle.
back
( distance )turtle.
bk
( distance )turtle.
backward
( distance )
 Parameters

distance – a number
Move the turtle backward by distance, opposite to the direction the turtle is headed. Do not change the turtle’s heading.
>>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.backward(30) >>> turtle.position() (30.00,0.00)
turtle.
right
( angle )turtle.
rt
( angle )
 Parameters

angle – a number (integer or float)
Turn turtle right by angle units. (Units are by default degrees, but can be set via the
degrees()
andradians()
functions.) Angle orientation depends on the turtle mode, seemode()
.>>> turtle.heading() 22.0 >>> turtle.right(45) >>> turtle.heading() 337.0
turtle.
left
( angle )turtle.
lt
( angle )
 Parameters

angle – a number (integer or float)
Turn turtle left by angle units. (Units are by default degrees, but can be set via the
degrees()
andradians()
functions.) Angle orientation depends on the turtle mode, seemode()
.>>> turtle.heading() 22.0 >>> turtle.left(45) >>> turtle.heading() 67.0
turtle.
goto
( x, y=None )turtle.
setpos
( x, y=None )turtle.
setposition
( x, y=None )
 Parameters

x – a number or a pair/vector of numbers
y – a number or
None
If y is
None
, x must be a pair of coordinates or aVec2D
(e.g. as returned bypos()
).Move turtle to an absolute position. If the pen is down, draw line. Do not change the turtle’s orientation.
>>> tp = turtle.pos() >>> tp (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.setpos(60,30) >>> turtle.pos() (60.00,30.00) >>> turtle.setpos((20,80)) >>> turtle.pos() (20.00,80.00) >>> turtle.setpos(tp) >>> turtle.pos() (0.00,0.00)
turtle.
setx
( x )
 Parameters

x – a number (integer or float)
Set the turtle’s first coordinate to x, leave second coordinate unchanged.
>>> turtle.position() (0.00,240.00) >>> turtle.setx(10) >>> turtle.position() (10.00,240.00)
turtle.
sety
( y )
 Parameters

y – a number (integer or float)
Set the turtle’s second coordinate to y, leave first coordinate unchanged.
>>> turtle.position() (0.00,40.00) >>> turtle.sety(10) >>> turtle.position() (0.00,10.00)
turtle.
setheading
( to_angle )turtle.
seth
( to_angle )
 Parameters

to_angle – a number (integer or float)
Set the orientation of the turtle to to_angle. Here are some common directions in degrees:
standard mode
logo mode
0  east
0  north
90  north
90  east
180  west
180  south
270  south
270  west
>>> turtle.setheading(90) >>> turtle.heading() 90.0
turtle.
home
( )
Move turtle to the origin – coordinates (0,0) – and set its heading to its startorientation (which depends on the mode, see
mode()
).>>> turtle.heading() 90.0 >>> turtle.position() (0.00,10.00) >>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.heading() 0.0
turtle.
circle
( radius, extent=None, steps=None )
 Parameters

radius – a number
extent – a number (or
None
)steps – an integer (or
None
)
Draw a circle with given radius. The center is radius units left of the turtle; extent – an angle – determines which part of the circle is drawn. If extent is not given, draw the entire circle. If extent is not a full circle, one endpoint of the arc is the current pen position. Draw the arc in counterclockwise direction if radius is positive, otherwise in clockwise direction. Finally the direction of the turtle is changed by the amount of extent.
As the circle is approximated by an inscribed regular polygon, steps determines the number of steps to use. If not given, it will be calculated automatically. May be used to draw regular polygons.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.heading() 0.0 >>> turtle.circle(50) >>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.heading() 0.0 >>> turtle.circle(120, 180) # draw a semicircle >>> turtle.position() (0.00,240.00) >>> turtle.heading() 180.0
turtle.
dot
( size=None, *color )
 Parameters

size – an integer >= 1 (if given)
color – a colorstring or a numeric color tuple
Draw a circular dot with diameter size, using color. If size is not given, the maximum of pensize+4 and 2*pensize is used.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.dot() >>> turtle.fd(50); turtle.dot(20, "blue"); turtle.fd(50) >>> turtle.position() (100.00,0.00) >>> turtle.heading() 0.0
turtle.
stamp
( )
Stamp a copy of the turtle shape onto the canvas at the current turtle position. Return a stamp_id for that stamp, which can be used to delete it by calling
clearstamp(stamp_id)
.>>> turtle.color("blue") >>> turtle.stamp() 11 >>> turtle.fd(50)
turtle.
clearstamp
( stampid )
 Parameters

stampid – an integer, must be return value of previous
stamp()
call
Delete stamp with given stampid.
>>> turtle.position() (150.00,0.00) >>> turtle.color("blue") >>> astamp = turtle.stamp() >>> turtle.fd(50) >>> turtle.position() (200.00,0.00) >>> turtle.clearstamp(astamp) >>> turtle.position() (200.00,0.00)
turtle.
clearstamps
( n=None )
 Parameters

n – an integer (or
None
)
Delete all or first/last n of turtle’s stamps. If n is
None
, delete all stamps, if n > 0 delete first n stamps, else if n < 0 delete last n stamps.>>> for i in range(8): ... turtle.stamp(); turtle.fd(30) 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 >>> turtle.clearstamps(2) >>> turtle.clearstamps(2) >>> turtle.clearstamps()
turtle.
undo
( )
Undo (repeatedly) the last turtle action(s). Number of available undo actions is determined by the size of the undobuffer.
>>> for i in range(4): ... turtle.fd(50); turtle.lt(80) ... >>> for i in range(8): ... turtle.undo()
turtle.
speed
( speed=None )
 Parameters

speed – an integer in the range 0..10 or a speedstring (see below)
Set the turtle’s speed to an integer value in the range 0..10. If no argument is given, return current speed.
If input is a number greater than 10 or smaller than 0.5, speed is set to 0. Speedstrings are mapped to speedvalues as follows:
“fastest”: 0
“fast”: 10
“normal”: 6
“slow”: 3
“slowest”: 1
Speeds from 1 to 10 enforce increasingly faster animation of line drawing and turtle turning.
Attention: speed = 0 means that no animation takes place. forward/back makes turtle jump and likewise left/right make the turtle turn instantly.
>>> turtle.speed() 3 >>> turtle.speed('normal') >>> turtle.speed() 6 >>> turtle.speed(9) >>> turtle.speed() 9
Tell Turtle’s state
turtle.
position
( )turtle.
pos
( )
Return the turtle’s current location (x,y) (as a
Vec2D
vector).>>> turtle.pos() (440.00,0.00)
turtle.
towards
( x, y=None )
 Parameters

x – a number or a pair/vector of numbers or a turtle instance
y – a number if x is a number, else
None
Return the angle between the line from turtle position to position specified by (x,y), the vector or the other turtle. This depends on the turtle’s start orientation which depends on the mode  “standard”/”world” or “logo”).
>>> turtle.goto(10, 10) >>> turtle.towards(0,0) 225.0
turtle.
xcor
( )
Return the turtle’s x coordinate.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.left(50) >>> turtle.forward(100) >>> turtle.pos() (64.28,76.60) >>> print(round(turtle.xcor(), 5)) 64.27876
turtle.
ycor
( )
Return the turtle’s y coordinate.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.left(60) >>> turtle.forward(100) >>> print(turtle.pos()) (50.00,86.60) >>> print(round(turtle.ycor(), 5)) 86.60254
turtle.
heading
( )
Return the turtle’s current heading (value depends on the turtle mode, see
mode()
).>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.left(67) >>> turtle.heading() 67.0
turtle.
distance
( x, y=None )
 Parameters

x – a number or a pair/vector of numbers or a turtle instance
y – a number if x is a number, else
None
Return the distance from the turtle to (x,y), the given vector, or the given other turtle, in turtle step units.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.distance(30,40) 50.0 >>> turtle.distance((30,40)) 50.0 >>> joe = Turtle() >>> joe.forward(77) >>> turtle.distance(joe) 77.0
Settings for measurement
turtle.
degrees
( fullcircle=360.0 )
 Parameters

fullcircle – a number
Set angle measurement units, i.e. set number of “degrees” for a full circle. Default value is 360 degrees.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.left(90) >>> turtle.heading() 90.0 Change angle measurement unit to grad (also known as gon, grade, or gradian and equals 1/100th of the right angle.) >>> turtle.degrees(400.0) >>> turtle.heading() 100.0 >>> turtle.degrees(360) >>> turtle.heading() 90.0
Pen control
Drawing state
turtle.
pensize
( width=None )turtle.
width
( width=None )
 Parameters

width – a positive number
Set the line thickness to width or return it. If resizemode is set to “auto” and turtleshape is a polygon, that polygon is drawn with the same line thickness. If no argument is given, the current pensize is returned.
>>> turtle.pensize() 1 >>> turtle.pensize(10) # from here on lines of width 10 are drawn
turtle.
pen
( pen=None, **pendict )
 Parameters

pen – a dictionary with some or all of the below listed keys
pendict – one or more keywordarguments with the below listed keys as keywords
Return or set the pen’s attributes in a “pendictionary” with the following key/value pairs:
“shown”: True/False
“pendown”: True/False
“pencolor”: colorstring or colortuple
“fillcolor”: colorstring or colortuple
“pensize”: positive number
“speed”: number in range 0..10
“resizemode”: “auto” or “user” or “noresize”
“stretchfactor”: (positive number, positive number)
“outline”: positive number
“tilt”: number
This dictionary can be used as argument for a subsequent call to
pen()
to restore the former penstate. Moreover one or more of these attributes can be provided as keywordarguments. This can be used to set several pen attributes in one statement.>>> turtle.pen(fillcolor="black", pencolor="red", pensize=10) >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items()) [('fillcolor', 'black'), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'red'), ('pendown', True), ('pensize', 10), ('resizemode', 'noresize'), ('shearfactor', 0.0), ('shown', True), ('speed', 9), ('stretchfactor', (1.0, 1.0)), ('tilt', 0.0)] >>> penstate=turtle.pen() >>> turtle.color("yellow", "") >>> turtle.penup() >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items())[:3] [('fillcolor', ''), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'yellow')] >>> turtle.pen(penstate, fillcolor="green") >>> sorted(turtle.pen().items())[:3] [('fillcolor', 'green'), ('outline', 1), ('pencolor', 'red')]
Color control
turtle.
pencolor
( *args )
Return or set the pencolor.
Four input formats are allowed:
pencolor()

Return the current pencolor as color specification string or as a tuple (see example). May be used as input to another color/pencolor/fillcolor call.
pencolor(colorstring)

Set pencolor to colorstring, which is a Tk color specification string, such as
"red"
,"yellow"
, or"#33cc8c"
. pencolor((r, g, b))

Set pencolor to the RGB color represented by the tuple of r, g, and b. Each of r, g, and b must be in the range 0..colormode, where colormode is either 1.0 or 255 (see
colormode()
). pencolor(r, g, b)

Set pencolor to the RGB color represented by r, g, and b. Each of r, g, and b must be in the range 0..colormode.
If turtleshape is a polygon, the outline of that polygon is drawn with the newly set pencolor.
>>> colormode() 1.0 >>> turtle.pencolor() 'red' >>> turtle.pencolor("brown") >>> turtle.pencolor() 'brown' >>> tup = (0.2, 0.8, 0.55) >>> turtle.pencolor(tup) >>> turtle.pencolor() (0.2, 0.8, 0.5490196078431373) >>> colormode(255) >>> turtle.pencolor() (51.0, 204.0, 140.0) >>> turtle.pencolor('#32c18f') >>> turtle.pencolor() (50.0, 193.0, 143.0)
turtle.
fillcolor
( *args )
Return or set the fillcolor.
Four input formats are allowed:
fillcolor()

Return the current fillcolor as color specification string, possibly in tuple format (see example). May be used as input to another color/pencolor/fillcolor call.
fillcolor(colorstring)

Set fillcolor to colorstring, which is a Tk color specification string, such as
"red"
,"yellow"
, or"#33cc8c"
. fillcolor((r, g, b))

Set fillcolor to the RGB color represented by the tuple of r, g, and b. Each of r, g, and b must be in the range 0..colormode, where colormode is either 1.0 or 255 (see
colormode()
). fillcolor(r, g, b)

Set fillcolor to the RGB color represented by r, g, and b. Each of r, g, and b must be in the range 0..colormode.
If turtleshape is a polygon, the interior of that polygon is drawn with the newly set fillcolor.
>>> turtle.fillcolor("violet") >>> turtle.fillcolor() 'violet' >>> turtle.pencolor() (50.0, 193.0, 143.0) >>> turtle.fillcolor((50, 193, 143)) # Integers, not floats >>> turtle.fillcolor() (50.0, 193.0, 143.0) >>> turtle.fillcolor('#ffffff') >>> turtle.fillcolor() (255.0, 255.0, 255.0)
turtle.
color
( *args )
Return or set pencolor and fillcolor.
Several input formats are allowed. They use 0 to 3 arguments as follows:
color()

Return the current pencolor and the current fillcolor as a pair of color specification strings or tuples as returned by
pencolor()
andfillcolor()
. color(colorstring)
,color((r,g,b))
,color(r,g,b)

Inputs as in
pencolor()
, set both, fillcolor and pencolor, to the given value. color(colorstring1, colorstring2)
,color((r1,g1,b1), (r2,g2,b2))

Equivalent to
pencolor(colorstring1)
andfillcolor(colorstring2)
and analogously if the other input format is used.If turtleshape is a polygon, outline and interior of that polygon is drawn with the newly set colors.
>>> turtle.color("red", "green") >>> turtle.color() ('red', 'green') >>> color("#285078", "#a0c8f0") >>> color() ((40.0, 80.0, 120.0), (160.0, 200.0, 240.0))
See also: Screen method colormode()
.
Filling
turtle.
filling
( )
Return fillstate (
True
if filling,False
else).>>> turtle.begin_fill() >>> if turtle.filling(): ... turtle.pensize(5) ... else: ... turtle.pensize(3)
turtle.
end_fill
( )
Fill the shape drawn after the last call to
begin_fill()
.Whether or not overlap regions for selfintersecting polygons or multiple shapes are filled depends on the operating system graphics, type of overlap, and number of overlaps. For example, the Turtle star above may be either all yellow or have some white regions.
>>> turtle.color("black", "red") >>> turtle.begin_fill() >>> turtle.circle(80) >>> turtle.end_fill()
More drawing control
turtle.
reset
( )
Delete the turtle’s drawings from the screen, recenter the turtle and set variables to the default values.
>>> turtle.goto(0,22) >>> turtle.left(100) >>> turtle.position() (0.00,22.00) >>> turtle.heading() 100.0 >>> turtle.reset() >>> turtle.position() (0.00,0.00) >>> turtle.heading() 0.0
turtle.
clear
( )
Delete the turtle’s drawings from the screen. Do not move turtle. State and position of the turtle as well as drawings of other turtles are not affected.
turtle.
write
( arg, move=False, align="left", font=("Arial", 8, "normal") )
 Parameters

arg – object to be written to the TurtleScreen
move – True/False
align – one of the strings “left”, “center” or right”
font – a triple (fontname, fontsize, fonttype)
Write text  the string representation of arg  at the current turtle position according to align (“left”, “center” or right”) and with the given font. If move is true, the pen is moved to the bottomright corner of the text. By default, move is
False
.>>> turtle.write("Home = ", True, align="center") >>> turtle.write((0,0), True)
Turtle state
Visibility
Appearance
turtle.
shape
( name=None )
 Parameters

name – a string which is a valid shapename
Set turtle shape to shape with given name or, if name is not given, return name of current shape. Shape with name must exist in the TurtleScreen’s shape dictionary. Initially there are the following polygon shapes: “arrow”, “turtle”, “circle”, “square”, “triangle”, “classic”. To learn about how to deal with shapes see Screen method
register_shape()
.>>> turtle.shape() 'classic' >>> turtle.shape("turtle") >>> turtle.shape() 'turtle'
turtle.
resizemode
( rmode=None )
 Parameters

rmode – one of the strings “auto”, “user”, “noresize”
Set resizemode to one of the values: “auto”, “user”, “noresize”. If rmode is not given, return current resizemode. Different resizemodes have the following effects:
“auto”: adapts the appearance of the turtle corresponding to the value of pensize.
“user”: adapts the appearance of the turtle according to the values of stretchfactor and outlinewidth (outline), which are set by
shapesize()
.“noresize”: no adaption of the turtle’s appearance takes place.
resizemode(“user”) is called by
shapesize()
when used with arguments.>>> turtle.resizemode() 'noresize' >>> turtle.resizemode("auto") >>> turtle.resizemode() 'auto'
turtle.
shapesize
( stretch_wid=None, stretch_len=None, outline=None )turtle.
turtlesize
( stretch_wid=None, stretch_len=None, outline=None )
 Parameters

stretch_wid – positive number
stretch_len – positive number
outline – positive number
Return or set the pen’s attributes x/ystretchfactors and/or outline. Set resizemode to “user”. If and only if resizemode is set to “user”, the turtle will be displayed stretched according to its stretchfactors: stretch_wid is stretchfactor perpendicular to its orientation, stretch_len is stretchfactor in direction of its orientation, outline determines the width of the shapes’s outline.
>>> turtle.shapesize() (1.0, 1.0, 1) >>> turtle.resizemode("user") >>> turtle.shapesize(5, 5, 12) >>> turtle.shapesize() (5, 5, 12) >>> turtle.shapesize(outline=8) >>> turtle.shapesize() (5, 5, 8)
turtle.
shearfactor
( shear=None )
 Parameters

shear – number (optional)
Set or return the current shearfactor. Shear the turtleshape according to the given shearfactor shear, which is the tangent of the shear angle. Do not change the turtle’s heading (direction of movement). If shear is not given: return the current shearfactor, i. e. the tangent of the shear angle, by which lines parallel to the heading of the turtle are sheared.
>>> turtle.shape("circle") >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2) >>> turtle.shearfactor(0.5) >>> turtle.shearfactor() 0.5
turtle.
tilt
( angle )
 Parameters

angle – a number
Rotate the turtleshape by angle from its current tiltangle, but do not change the turtle’s heading (direction of movement).
>>> turtle.reset() >>> turtle.shape("circle") >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2) >>> turtle.tilt(30) >>> turtle.fd(50) >>> turtle.tilt(30) >>> turtle.fd(50)
turtle.
settiltangle
( angle )
 Parameters

angle – a number
Rotate the turtleshape to point in the direction specified by angle, regardless of its current tiltangle. Do not change the turtle’s heading (direction of movement).
>>> turtle.reset() >>> turtle.shape("circle") >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2) >>> turtle.settiltangle(45) >>> turtle.fd(50) >>> turtle.settiltangle(45) >>> turtle.fd(50)
Deprecated since version 3.1.
turtle.
tiltangle
( angle=None )
 Parameters

angle – a number (optional)
Set or return the current tiltangle. If angle is given, rotate the turtleshape to point in the direction specified by angle, regardless of its current tiltangle. Do not change the turtle’s heading (direction of movement). If angle is not given: return the current tiltangle, i. e. the angle between the orientation of the turtleshape and the heading of the turtle (its direction of movement).
>>> turtle.reset() >>> turtle.shape("circle") >>> turtle.shapesize(5,2) >>> turtle.tilt(45) >>> turtle.tiltangle() 45.0
turtle.
shapetransform
( t11=None, t12=None, t21=None, t22=None )
 Parameters

t11 – a number (optional)
t12 – a number (optional)
t21 – a number (optional)
t12 – a number (optional)
Set or return the current transformation matrix of the turtle shape.
If none of the matrix elements are given, return the transformation matrix as a tuple of 4 elements. Otherwise set the given elements and transform the turtleshape according to the matrix consisting of first row t11, t12 and second row t21, 22. The determinant t11 * t22  t12 * t21 must not be zero, otherwise an error is raised. Modify stretchfactor, shearfactor and tiltangle according to the given matrix.
>>> turtle = Turtle() >>> turtle.shape("square") >>> turtle.shapesize(4,2) >>> turtle.shearfactor(0.5) >>> turtle.shapetransform() (4.0, 1.0, 0.0, 2.0)
turtle.
get_shapepoly
( )
Return the current shape polygon as tuple of coordinate pairs. This can be used to define a new shape or components of a compound shape.
>>> turtle.shape("square") >>> turtle.shapetransform(4, 1, 0, 2) >>> turtle.get_shapepoly() ((50, 20), (30, 20), (50, 20), (30, 20))
Using events
turtle.
onclick
( fun, btn=1, add=None )
 Parameters

fun – a function with two arguments which will be called with the coordinates of the clicked point on the canvas
btn – number of the mousebutton, defaults to 1 (left mouse button)
add –
True
orFalse
– ifTrue
, a new binding will be added, otherwise it will replace a former binding
Bind fun to mouseclick events on this turtle. If fun is
None
, existing bindings are removed. Example for the anonymous turtle, i.e. the procedural way:>>> def turn(x, y): ... left(180) ... >>> onclick(turn) # Now clicking into the turtle will turn it. >>> onclick(None) # eventbinding will be removed
turtle.
onrelease
( fun, btn=1, add=None )
 Parameters

fun – a function with two arguments which will be called with the coordinates of the clicked point on the canvas
btn – number of the mousebutton, defaults to 1 (left mouse button)
add –
True
orFalse
– ifTrue
, a new binding will be added, otherwise it will replace a former binding
Bind fun to mousebuttonrelease events on this turtle. If fun is
None
, existing bindings are removed.>>> class MyTurtle(Turtle): ... def glow(self,x,y): ... self.fillcolor("red") ... def unglow(self,x,y): ... self.fillcolor("") ... >>> turtle = MyTurtle() >>> turtle.onclick(turtle.glow) # clicking on turtle turns fillcolor red, >>> turtle.onrelease(turtle.unglow) # releasing turns it to transparent.
turtle.
ondrag
( fun, btn=1, add=None )
 Parameters

fun – a function with two arguments which will be called with the coordinates of the clicked point on the canvas
btn – number of the mousebutton, defaults to 1 (left mouse button)
add –
True
orFalse
– ifTrue
, a new binding will be added, otherwise it will replace a former binding
Bind fun to mousemove events on this turtle. If fun is
None
, existing bindings are removed.Remark: Every sequence of mousemoveevents on a turtle is preceded by a mouseclick event on that turtle.
>>> turtle.ondrag(turtle.goto)
Subsequently, clicking and dragging the Turtle will move it across the screen thereby producing handdrawings (if pen is down).
Special Turtle methods
turtle.
begin_poly
( )
Start recording the vertices of a polygon. Current turtle position is first vertex of polygon.
turtle.
end_poly
( )
Stop recording the vertices of a polygon. Current turtle position is last vertex of polygon. This will be connected with the first vertex.
turtle.
get_poly
( )
Return the last recorded polygon.
>>> turtle.home() >>> turtle.begin_poly() >>> turtle.fd(100) >>> turtle.left(20) >>> turtle.fd(30) >>> turtle.left(60) >>> turtle.fd(50) >>> turtle.end_poly() >>> p = turtle.get_poly() >>> register_shape("myFavouriteShape", p)
turtle.
clone
( )
Create and return a clone of the turtle with same position, heading and turtle properties.
>>> mick = Turtle() >>> joe = mick.clone()
turtle.
getturtle
( )turtle.
getpen
( )
Return the Turtle object itself. Only reasonable use: as a function to return the “anonymous turtle”:
>>> pet = getturtle() >>> pet.fd(50) >>> pet <turtle.Turtle object at 0x...>
turtle.
getscreen
( )
Return the
TurtleScreen
object the turtle is drawing on. TurtleScreen methods can then be called for that object.>>> ts = turtle.getscreen() >>> ts <turtle._Screen object at 0x...> >>> ts.bgcolor("pink")
turtle.
setundobuffer
( size )
 Parameters

size – an integer or
None
Set or disable undobuffer. If size is an integer an empty undobuffer of given size is installed. size gives the maximum number of turtle actions that can be undone by the
undo()
method/function. If size isNone
, the undobuffer is disabled.>>> turtle.setundobuffer(42)
Compound shapes
To use compound turtle shapes, which consist of several polygons of different color, you must use the helper class Shape
explicitly as described below:
Create an empty Shape object of type “compound”.
Add as many components to this object as desired, using the
addcomponent()
method.For example:
>>> s = Shape("compound") >>> poly1 = ((0,0),(10,5),(0,10),(10,5)) >>> s.addcomponent(poly1, "red", "blue") >>> poly2 = ((0,0),(10,5),(10,5)) >>> s.addcomponent(poly2, "blue", "red")
Now add the Shape to the Screen’s shapelist and use it:
>>> register_shape("myshape", s) >>> shape("myshape")
Note
The Shape
class is used internally by the register_shape()
method in different ways. The application programmer has to deal with the Shape class only when using compound shapes like shown above!
Methods of TurtleScreen/Screen and corresponding functions
Most of the examples in this section refer to a TurtleScreen instance called screen
.
Window control
turtle.
bgcolor
( *args )
 Parameters

args – a color string or three numbers in the range 0..colormode or a 3tuple of such numbers
Set or return background color of the TurtleScreen.
>>> screen.bgcolor("orange") >>> screen.bgcolor() 'orange' >>> screen.bgcolor("#800080") >>> screen.bgcolor() (128.0, 0.0, 128.0)
turtle.
bgpic
( picname=None )
 Parameters

picname – a string, name of a giffile or
"nopic"
, orNone
Set background image or return name of current backgroundimage. If picname is a filename, set the corresponding image as background. If picname is
"nopic"
, delete background image, if present. If picname isNone
, return the filename of the current backgroundimage.>>> screen.bgpic() 'nopic' >>> screen.bgpic("landscape.gif") >>> screen.bgpic() "landscape.gif"
turtle.
clear
( )turtle.
clearscreen
( )
Delete all drawings and all turtles from the TurtleScreen. Reset the now empty TurtleScreen to its initial state: white background, no background image, no event bindings and tracing on.
Note
This TurtleScreen method is available as a global function only under the name
clearscreen
. The global functionclear
is a different one derived from the Turtle methodclear
.
turtle.
reset
( )turtle.
resetscreen
( )
Reset all Turtles on the Screen to their initial state.
Note
This TurtleScreen method is available as a global function only under the name
resetscreen
. The global functionreset
is another one derived from the Turtle methodreset
.
turtle.
screensize
( canvwidth=None, canvheight=None, bg=None )
 Parameters

canvwidth – positive integer, new width of canvas in pixels
canvheight – positive integer, new height of canvas in pixels
bg – colorstring or colortuple, new background color
If no arguments are given, return current (canvaswidth, canvasheight). Else resize the canvas the turtles are drawing on. Do not alter the drawing window. To observe hidden parts of the canvas, use the scrollbars. With this method, one can make visible those parts of a drawing which were outside the canvas before.
>>> screen.screensize() (400, 300) >>> screen.screensize(2000,1500) >>> screen.screensize() (2000, 1500)
e.g. to search for an erroneously escaped turtle ;)
turtle.
setworldcoordinates
( llx, lly, urx, ury )
 Parameters

llx – a number, xcoordinate of lower left corner of canvas
lly – a number, ycoordinate of lower left corner of canvas
urx – a number, xcoordinate of upper right corner of canvas
ury – a number, ycoordinate of upper right corner of canvas
Set up userdefined coordinate system and switch to mode “world” if necessary. This performs a
screen.reset()
. If mode “world” is already active, all drawings are redrawn according to the new coordinates.ATTENTION: in userdefined coordinate systems angles may appear distorted.
>>> screen.reset() >>> screen.setworldcoordinates(50,7.5,50,7.5) >>> for _ in range(72): ... left(10) ... >>> for _ in range(8): ... left(45); fd(2) # a regular octagon
Animation control
turtle.
delay
( delay=None )
 Parameters

delay – positive integer
Set or return the drawing delay in milliseconds. (This is approximately the time interval between two consecutive canvas updates.) The longer the drawing delay, the slower the animation.
Optional argument:
>>> screen.delay() 10 >>> screen.delay(5) >>> screen.delay() 5
turtle.
tracer
( n=None, delay=None )
 Parameters

n – nonnegative integer
delay – nonnegative integer
Turn turtle animation on/off and set delay for update drawings. If n is given, only each nth regular screen update is really performed. (Can be used to accelerate the drawing of complex graphics.) When called without arguments, returns the currently stored value of n. Second argument sets delay value (see
delay()
).>>> screen.tracer(8, 25) >>> dist = 2 >>> for i in range(200): ... fd(dist) ... rt(90) ... dist += 2
See also the RawTurtle/Turtle method speed()
.
Using screen events
turtle.
listen
( xdummy=None, ydummy=None )
Set focus on TurtleScreen (in order to collect keyevents). Dummy arguments are provided in order to be able to pass
listen()
to the onclick method.
turtle.
onkey
( fun, key )turtle.
onkeyrelease
( fun, key )
 Parameters

fun – a function with no arguments or
None
key – a string: key (e.g. “a”) or keysymbol (e.g. “space”)
Bind fun to keyrelease event of key. If fun is
None
, event bindings are removed. Remark: in order to be able to register keyevents, TurtleScreen must have the focus. (See methodlisten()
.)>>> def f(): ... fd(50) ... lt(60) ... >>> screen.onkey(f, "Up") >>> screen.listen()
turtle.
onkeypress
( fun, key=None )
 Parameters

fun – a function with no arguments or
None
key – a string: key (e.g. “a”) or keysymbol (e.g. “space”)
Bind fun to keypress event of key if key is given, or to any keypressevent if no key is given. Remark: in order to be able to register keyevents, TurtleScreen must have focus. (See method
listen()
.)>>> def f(): ... fd(50) ... >>> screen.onkey(f, "Up") >>> screen.listen()
turtle.
onclick