6. Java Configuration

General support for Java Configuration was added to Spring Framework in Spring 3.1. Since Spring Security 3.2 there has been Spring Security Java Configuration support which enables users to easily configure Spring Security without the use of any XML.

If you are familiar with the Chapter 7, Security Namespace Configuration then you should find quite a few similarities between it and the Security Java Configuration support.

Note

Spring Security provides lots of sample applications which demonstrate the use of Spring Security Java Configuration.

6.1 Hello Web Security Java Configuration

The first step is to create our Spring Security Java Configuration. The configuration creates a Servlet Filter known as the springSecurityFilterChain which is responsible for all the security (protecting the application URLs, validating submitted username and passwords, redirecting to the log in form, etc) within your application. You can find the most basic example of a Spring Security Java Configuration below:

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.*;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.*;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.*;

@EnableWebSecurity
public class WebSecurityConfig implements WebMvcConfigurer {

    @Bean
    public UserDetailsService userDetailsService() throws Exception {
        InMemoryUserDetailsManager manager = new InMemoryUserDetailsManager();
        manager.createUser(User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder().username("user").password("password").roles("USER").build());
        return manager;
    }
}

There really isn’t much to this configuration, but it does a lot. You can find a summary of the features below:

6.1.1 AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer

The next step is to register the springSecurityFilterChain with the war. This can be done in Java Configuration with Spring’s WebApplicationInitializer support in a Servlet 3.0+ environment. Not suprisingly, Spring Security provides a base class AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer that will ensure the springSecurityFilterChain gets registered for you. The way in which we use AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer differs depending on if we are already using Spring or if Spring Security is the only Spring component in our application.

6.1.2 AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer without Existing Spring

If you are not using Spring or Spring MVC, you will need to pass in the WebSecurityConfig into the superclass to ensure the configuration is picked up. You can find an example below:

import org.springframework.security.web.context.*;

public class SecurityWebApplicationInitializer
    extends AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer {

    public SecurityWebApplicationInitializer() {
        super(WebSecurityConfig.class);
    }
}

The SecurityWebApplicationInitializer will do the following things:

  • Automatically register the springSecurityFilterChain Filter for every URL in your application

  • Add a ContextLoaderListener that loads the WebSecurityConfig.

6.1.3 AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer with Spring MVC

If we were using Spring elsewhere in our application we probably already had a WebApplicationInitializer that is loading our Spring Configuration. If we use the previous configuration we would get an error. Instead, we should register Spring Security with the existing ApplicationContext . For example, if we were using Spring MVC our SecurityWebApplicationInitializer would look something like the following:

import org.springframework.security.web.context.*;

public class SecurityWebApplicationInitializer
    extends AbstractSecurityWebApplicationInitializer {

}

This would simply only register the springSecurityFilterChain Filter for every URL in your application. After that we would ensure that WebSecurityConfig was loaded in our existing ApplicationInitializer. For example, if we were using Spring MVC it would be added in the getRootConfigClasses()

public class MvcWebApplicationInitializer extends
        AbstractAnnotationConfigDispatcherServletInitializer {

    @Override
    protected Class<?>[] getRootConfigClasses() {
        return new Class[] { WebSecurityConfig.class };
    }

    // ... other overrides ...
}

6.2 HttpSecurity

Thus far our WebSecurityConfig only contains information about how to authenticate our users. How does Spring Security know that we want to require all users to be authenticated? How does Spring Security know we want to support form based authentication? The reason for this is that the WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter provides a default configuration in the configure(HttpSecurity http) method that looks like:

protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
        .authorizeRequests()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            .and()
        .formLogin()
            .and()
        .httpBasic();
}

The default configuration above:

  • Ensures that any request to our application requires the user to be authenticated

  • Allows users to authenticate with form based login

  • Allows users to authenticate with HTTP Basic authentication

You will notice that this configuration is quite similar the XML Namespace configuration:

<http>
    <intercept-url pattern="/**" access="authenticated"/>
    <form-login />
    <http-basic />
</http>

The Java Configuration equivalent of closing an XML tag is expressed using the and() method which allows us to continue configuring the parent. If you read the code it also makes sense. I want to configure authorized requests and configure form login and configure HTTP Basic authentication.

6.3 Java Configuration and Form Login

You might be wondering where the login form came from when you were prompted to log in, since we made no mention of any HTML files or JSPs. Since Spring Security’s default configuration does not explicitly set a URL for the login page, Spring Security generates one automatically, based on the features that are enabled and using standard values for the URL which processes the submitted login, the default target URL the user will be sent to after logging in and so on.

While the automatically generated log in page is convenient to get up and running quickly, most applications will want to provide their own log in page. To do so we can update our configuration as seen below:

protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
        .authorizeRequests()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            .and()
        .formLogin()
            .loginPage("/login") (1)
            .permitAll();        (2)
}
  • (1) The updated configuration specifies the location of the log in page.
  • (2) We must grant all users (i.e. unauthenticated users) access to our log in page. The formLogin().permitAll() method allows granting access to all users for all URLs associated with form based log in.

An example log in page implemented with JSPs for our current configuration can be seen below:

Note

The login page below represents our current configuration. We could easily update our configuration if some of the defaults do not meet our needs.

<c:url value="/login" var="loginUrl"/>
<form action="${loginUrl}" method="post">       (1)
    <c:if test="${param.error != null}">        (2)
        <p>
            Invalid username and password.
        </p>
    </c:if>
    <c:if test="${param.logout != null}">       (3)
        <p>
            You have been logged out.
        </p>
    </c:if>
    <p>
        <label for="username">Username</label>
        <input type="text" id="username" name="username"/>  (4)
    </p>
    <p>
        <label for="password">Password</label>
        <input type="password" id="password" name="password"/>  (5)
    </p>
    <input type="hidden"                        (6)
        name="${_csrf.parameterName}"
        value="${_csrf.token}"/>
    <button type="submit" class="btn">Log in</button>
</form>
  • (1) A POST to the /login URL will attempt to authenticate the user
  • (2) If the query parameter error exists, authentication was attempted and failed
  • (3) If the query parameter logout exists, the user was successfully logged out
  • (4) The username must be present as the HTTP parameter named username
  • (5) The password must be present as the HTTP parameter named password
  • (6) We must the section called “Include the CSRF Token” To learn more read the Section 10.6, “Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)” section of the reference

6.4 Authorize Requests

Our examples have only required users to be authenticated and have done so for every URL in our application. We can specify custom requirements for our URLs by adding multiple children to our http.authorizeRequests() method. For example:

protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
        .authorizeRequests()                                                                (1)
            .antMatchers("/resources/**", "/signup", "/about").permitAll()                  (2)
            .antMatchers("/admin/**").hasRole("ADMIN")                                      (3)
            .antMatchers("/db/**").access("hasRole('ADMIN') and hasRole('DBA')")            (4)
            .anyRequest().authenticated()                                                   (5)
            .and()
        // ...
        .formLogin();
}
  • (1) There are multiple children to the http.authorizeRequests() method each matcher is considered in the order they were declared.
  • (2) We specified multiple URL patterns that any user can access. Specifically, any user can access a request if the URL starts with "/resources/", equals "/signup", or equals "/about".
  • (3) Any URL that starts with "/admin/" will be restricted to users who have the role "ROLE_ADMIN". You will notice that since we are invoking the hasRole method we do not need to specify the "ROLE_" prefix.
  • (4) Any URL that starts with "/db/" requires the user to have both "ROLE_ADMIN" and "ROLE_DBA". You will notice that since we are using the hasRole expression we do not need to specify the "ROLE_" prefix.
  • (5) Any URL that has not already been matched on only requires that the user be authenticated

6.5 Handling Logouts

When using the WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter , logout capabilities are automatically applied. The default is that accessing the URL /logout will log the user out by:

  • Invalidating the HTTP Session

  • Cleaning up any RememberMe authentication that was configured

  • Clearing the SecurityContextHolder

  • Redirect to /login?logout

Similar to configuring login capabilities, however, you also have various options to further customize your logout requirements:

protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
        .logout()                                                                (1)
            .logoutUrl("/my/logout")                                                 (2)
            .logoutSuccessUrl("/my/index")                                           (3)
            .logoutSuccessHandler(logoutSuccessHandler)                              (4)
            .invalidateHttpSession(true)                                             (5)
            .addLogoutHandler(logoutHandler)                                         (6)
            .deleteCookies(cookieNamesToClear)                                       (7)
            .and()
        ...
}
  • (1) Provides logout support. This is automatically applied when using WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter .
  • (2) The URL that triggers log out to occur (default is /logout ). If CSRF protection is enabled (default), then the request must also be a POST. For more information, please consult the JavaDoc.
  • (3) The URL to redirect to after logout has occurred. The default is /login?logout . For more information, please consult the JavaDoc.
  • (4) Let’s you specify a custom LogoutSuccessHandler . If this is specified, logoutSuccessUrl() is ignored. For more information, please consult the JavaDoc.
  • (5) Specify whether to invalidate the HttpSession at the time of logout. This is true by default. Configures the SecurityContextLogoutHandler under the covers. For more information, please consult the JavaDoc.
  • (6) Adds a LogoutHandler . SecurityContextLogoutHandler is added as the last LogoutHandler by default.
  • (7) Allows specifying the names of cookies to be removed on logout success. This is a shortcut for adding a CookieClearingLogoutHandler explicitly.

Note

=== Logouts can of course also be configured using the XML Namespace notation. Please see the documentation for the logout element in the Spring Security XML Namespace section for further details. ===

Generally, in order to customize logout functionality, you can add LogoutHandler and/or LogoutSuccessHandler implementations. For many common scenarios, these handlers are applied under the covers when using the fluent API.

6.5.1 LogoutHandler

Generally, LogoutHandler implementations indicate classes that are able to participate in logout handling. They are expected to be invoked to perform necessary clean-up. As such they should not throw exceptions. Various implementations are provided:

Please see Section 10.5.4, “Remember-Me Interfaces and Implementations” for details.

Instead of providing LogoutHandler implementations directly, the fluent API also provides shortcuts that provide the respective LogoutHandler implementations under the covers. E.g. deleteCookies() allows specifying the names of one or more cookies to be removed on logout success. This is a shortcut compared to adding a CookieClearingLogoutHandler .

6.5.2 LogoutSuccessHandler

The LogoutSuccessHandler is called after a successful logout by the LogoutFilter , to handle e.g. redirection or forwarding to the appropriate destination. Note that the interface is almost the same as the LogoutHandler but may raise an exception.

The following implementations are provided:

As mentioned above, you don’t need to specify the SimpleUrlLogoutSuccessHandler directly. Instead, the fluent API provides a shortcut by setting the logoutSuccessUrl() . This will setup the SimpleUrlLogoutSuccessHandler under the covers. The provided URL will be redirected to after a logout has occurred. The default is /login?logout .

The HttpStatusReturningLogoutSuccessHandler can be interesting in REST API type scenarios. Instead of redirecting to a URL upon the successful logout, this LogoutSuccessHandler allows you to provide a plain HTTP status code to be returned. If not configured a status code 200 will be returned by default.

6.6 OAuth 2.0 Client

The OAuth 2.0 Client features provide support for the Client role as defined in the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework.

The following main features are available:

HttpSecurity.oauth2Client() provides a number of configuration options for customizing OAuth 2.0 Client. The following code shows the complete configuration options available for the oauth2Client() DSL:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class OAuth2ClientSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .oauth2Client()
                .clientRegistrationRepository(this.clientRegistrationRepository())
                .authorizedClientRepository(this.authorizedClientRepository())
                .authorizedClientService(this.authorizedClientService())
                .authorizationCodeGrant()
                    .authorizationRequestRepository(this.authorizationRequestRepository())
                    .authorizationRequestResolver(this.authorizationRequestResolver())
                    .accessTokenResponseClient(this.accessTokenResponseClient());
    }
}

The following sections go into more detail on each of the configuration options available:

6.6.1 ClientRegistration

ClientRegistration is a representation of a client registered with an OAuth 2.0 or OpenID Connect 1.0 Provider.

A client registration holds information, such as client id, client secret, authorization grant type, redirect URI, scope(s), authorization URI, token URI, and other details.

ClientRegistration and its properties are defined as follows:

public final class ClientRegistration {
    private String registrationId;  (1)
    private String clientId;    (2)
    private String clientSecret;    (3)
    private ClientAuthenticationMethod clientAuthenticationMethod;  (4)
    private AuthorizationGrantType authorizationGrantType;  (5)
    private String redirectUriTemplate; (6)
    private Set<String> scopes; (7)
    private ProviderDetails providerDetails;
    private String clientName;  (8)

    public class ProviderDetails {
        private String authorizationUri;    (9)
        private String tokenUri;    https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/10.png
        private UserInfoEndpoint userInfoEndpoint;
        private String jwkSetUri;   https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/11.png
        private Map<String, Object> configurationMetadata;  https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/12.png

        public class UserInfoEndpoint {
            private String uri; https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/13.png
            private AuthenticationMethod authenticationMethod;  https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/14.png
            private String userNameAttributeName;   https://www.docs4dev.com/images/spring-security/5.1.2.RELEASE/15.png

        }
    }
}
  • (1) registrationId : The ID that uniquely identifies the ClientRegistration .
  • (2) clientId : The client identifier.
  • (3) clientSecret : The client secret.
  • (4) clientAuthenticationMethod : The method used to authenticate the Client with the Provider. The supported values are basic and post .
  • (5) authorizationGrantType : The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework defines four Authorization Grant types. The supported values are authorization_code, implicit, and client_credentials.
  • (6) redirectUriTemplate : The client’s registered redirect URI that the Authorization Server redirects the end-user’s user-agent to after the end-user has authenticated and authorized access to the client.
  • (7) scopes : The scope(s) requested by the client during the Authorization Request flow, such as openid, email, or profile.
  • (8) clientName : A descriptive name used for the client. The name may be used in certain scenarios, such as when displaying the name of the client in the auto-generated login page.
  • (9) authorizationUri : The Authorization Endpoint URI for the Authorization Server.
  • (0) tokenUri : The Token Endpoint URI for the Authorization Server.
  • (1) jwkSetUri : The URI used to retrieve the JSON Web Key (JWK) Set from the Authorization Server, which contains the cryptographic key(s) used to verify the JSON Web Signature (JWS) of the ID Token and optionally the UserInfo Response.
  • (2) configurationMetadata : The OpenID Provider Configuration Information. This information will only be available if the Spring Boot 2.x property spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].issuerUri is configured.
  • (3) (userInfoEndpoint)uri : The UserInfo Endpoint URI used to access the claims/attributes of the authenticated end-user.
  • (4) (userInfoEndpoint)authenticationMethod : The authentication method used when sending the access token to the UserInfo Endpoint. The supported values are header , form and query .
  • (5) userNameAttributeName : The name of the attribute returned in the UserInfo Response that references the Name or Identifier of the end-user.

6.6.2 ClientRegistrationRepository

The ClientRegistrationRepository serves as a repository for OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect 1.0 ClientRegistration (s).

Note

Client registration information is ultimately stored and owned by the associated Authorization Server. This repository provides the ability to retrieve a sub-set of the primary client registration information, which is stored with the Authorization Server.

Spring Boot 2.x auto-configuration binds each of the properties under spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId] to an instance of ClientRegistration and then composes each of the ClientRegistration instance(s) within a ClientRegistrationRepository .

Note

The default implementation of ClientRegistrationRepository is InMemoryClientRegistrationRepository .

The auto-configuration also registers the ClientRegistrationRepository as a @Bean in the ApplicationContext so that it is available for dependency-injection, if needed by the application.

The following listing shows an example:

@Controller
public class OAuth2ClientController {

    @Autowired
    private ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository;

    @RequestMapping("/")
    public String index() {
        ClientRegistration googleRegistration =
            this.clientRegistrationRepository.findByRegistrationId("google");

        ...

        return "index";
    }
}

6.6.3 OAuth2AuthorizedClient

OAuth2AuthorizedClient is a representation of an Authorized Client. A client is considered to be authorized when the end-user (Resource Owner) has granted authorization to the client to access its protected resources.

OAuth2AuthorizedClient serves the purpose of associating an OAuth2AccessToken (and optional OAuth2RefreshToken ) to a ClientRegistration (client) and resource owner, who is the Principal end-user that granted the authorization.

6.6.4 OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository / OAuth2AuthorizedClientService

OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository is responsible for persisting OAuth2AuthorizedClient (s) between web requests. Whereas, the primary role of OAuth2AuthorizedClientService is to manage OAuth2AuthorizedClient (s) at the application-level.

From a developer perspective, the OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository or OAuth2AuthorizedClientService provides the capability to lookup an OAuth2AccessToken associated with a client so that it may be used to initiate a protected resource request.

Note

Spring Boot 2.x auto-configuration registers an OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository and/or OAuth2AuthorizedClientService @Bean in the ApplicationContext .

The developer may also register an OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository or OAuth2AuthorizedClientService @Bean in the ApplicationContext (overriding Spring Boot 2.x auto-configuration) in order to have the ability to lookup an OAuth2AccessToken associated with a specific ClientRegistration (client).

The following listing shows an example:

@Controller
public class OAuth2LoginController {

    @Autowired
    private OAuth2AuthorizedClientService authorizedClientService;

    @RequestMapping("/userinfo")
    public String userinfo(OAuth2AuthenticationToken authentication) {
        // authentication.getAuthorizedClientRegistrationId() returns the
        // registrationId of the Client that was authorized during the oauth2Login() flow
        OAuth2AuthorizedClient authorizedClient =
            this.authorizedClientService.loadAuthorizedClient(
                authentication.getAuthorizedClientRegistrationId(),
                authentication.getName());

        OAuth2AccessToken accessToken = authorizedClient.getAccessToken();

        ...

        return "userinfo";
    }
}

6.6.5 RegisteredOAuth2AuthorizedClient

The @RegisteredOAuth2AuthorizedClient annotation provides the capability of resolving a method parameter to an argument value of type OAuth2AuthorizedClient . This is a convenient alternative compared to looking up the OAuth2AuthorizedClient via the OAuth2AuthorizedClientService .

@Controller
public class OAuth2LoginController {

    @RequestMapping("/userinfo")
    public String userinfo(@RegisteredOAuth2AuthorizedClient("google") OAuth2AuthorizedClient authorizedClient) {
        OAuth2AccessToken accessToken = authorizedClient.getAccessToken();

        ...

        return "userinfo";
    }
}

The @RegisteredOAuth2AuthorizedClient annotation is handled by OAuth2AuthorizedClientArgumentResolver and provides the following capabilities:

  • An OAuth2AccessToken will automatically be requested if the client has not yet been authorized.

  • For authorization_code , this involves triggering the authorization request redirect to initiate the flow

    • For client_credentials , the access token is directly obtained from the Token Endpoint using DefaultClientCredentialsTokenResponseClient

6.6.6 AuthorizationRequestRepository

AuthorizationRequestRepository is responsible for the persistence of the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest from the time the Authorization Request is initiated to the time the Authorization Response is received (the callback).

Tip

The OAuth2AuthorizationRequest is used to correlate and validate the Authorization Response.

The default implementation of AuthorizationRequestRepository is HttpSessionOAuth2AuthorizationRequestRepository , which stores the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest in the HttpSession .

If you would like to provide a custom implementation of AuthorizationRequestRepository that stores the attributes of OAuth2AuthorizationRequest in a Cookie , you may configure it as shown in the following example:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class OAuth2ClientSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .oauth2Client()
                .authorizationCodeGrant()
                    .authorizationRequestRepository(this.cookieAuthorizationRequestRepository())
                    ...
    }

    private AuthorizationRequestRepository<OAuth2AuthorizationRequest> cookieAuthorizationRequestRepository() {
        return new HttpCookieOAuth2AuthorizationRequestRepository();
    }
}

6.6.7 OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver

The primary role of the OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver is to resolve an OAuth2AuthorizationRequest from the provided web request. The default implementation DefaultOAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver matches on the (default) path /oauth2/authorization/{registrationId} extracting the registrationId and using it to build the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest for the associated ClientRegistration .

One of the primary use cases an OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver can realize is the ability to customize the Authorization Request with additional parameters above the standard parameters defined in the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework.

For example, OpenID Connect defines additional OAuth 2.0 request parameters for the Authorization Code Flow extending from the standard parameters defined in the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework. One of those extended parameters is the prompt parameter.

Note

OPTIONAL. Space delimited, case sensitive list of ASCII string values that specifies whether the Authorization Server prompts the End-User for reauthentication and consent. The defined values are: none, login, consent, select_account

The following example shows how to implement an OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver that customizes the Authorization Request for oauth2Login() , by including the request parameter prompt=consent .

@EnableWebSecurity
public class OAuth2LoginSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Autowired
    private ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository;

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2Login()
                .authorizationEndpoint()
                    .authorizationRequestResolver(
                            new CustomAuthorizationRequestResolver(
                                    this.clientRegistrationRepository));    (1)
    }
}

public class CustomAuthorizationRequestResolver implements OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver {
    private final OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver defaultAuthorizationRequestResolver;

    public CustomAuthorizationRequestResolver(
            ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository) {

        this.defaultAuthorizationRequestResolver =
                new DefaultOAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver(
                        clientRegistrationRepository, "/oauth2/authorization");
    }

    @Override
    public OAuth2AuthorizationRequest resolve(HttpServletRequest request) {
        OAuth2AuthorizationRequest authorizationRequest =
                this.defaultAuthorizationRequestResolver.resolve(request);  (2)

        return authorizationRequest != null ?   (3)
                customAuthorizationRequest(authorizationRequest) :
                null;
    }

    @Override
    public OAuth2AuthorizationRequest resolve(
            HttpServletRequest request, String clientRegistrationId) {

        OAuth2AuthorizationRequest authorizationRequest =
                this.defaultAuthorizationRequestResolver.resolve(
                    request, clientRegistrationId);    (4)

        return authorizationRequest != null ?   (5)
                customAuthorizationRequest(authorizationRequest) :
                null;
    }

    private OAuth2AuthorizationRequest customAuthorizationRequest(
            OAuth2AuthorizationRequest authorizationRequest) {

        Map<String, Object> additionalParameters =
                new LinkedHashMap<>(authorizationRequest.getAdditionalParameters());
        additionalParameters.put("prompt", "consent");  (6)

        return OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.from(authorizationRequest)    (7)
                .additionalParameters(additionalParameters) (8)
                .build();
    }
}
  • (1) Configure the custom OAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver
  • (2) Attempt to resolve the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest using the DefaultOAuth2AuthorizationRequestResolver
  • (3) If an OAuth2AuthorizationRequest was resolved than return a customized version else return null
  • (6) Add custom parameters to the existing OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.additionalParameters
  • (7) Create a copy of the default OAuth2AuthorizationRequest which returns an OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.Builder for further modifications
  • (8) Override the default additionalParameters

Tip

OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.Builder.build() constructs the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.authorizationRequestUri , which represents the complete Authorization Request URI including all query parameters using the application/x-www-form-urlencoded format.

The preceding example shows the common use case of adding a custom parameter on top of the standard parameters. However, if you need to remove or change a standard parameter or your requirements are more advanced, than you can take full control in building the Authorization Request URI by simply overriding the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.authorizationRequestUri property.

The following example shows a variation of the customAuthorizationRequest() method from the preceding example, and instead overrides the OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.authorizationRequestUri property.

private OAuth2AuthorizationRequest customAuthorizationRequest(
        OAuth2AuthorizationRequest authorizationRequest) {

    String customAuthorizationRequestUri = UriComponentsBuilder
            .fromUriString(authorizationRequest.getAuthorizationRequestUri())
            .queryParam("prompt", "consent")
            .build(true)
            .toUriString();

    return OAuth2AuthorizationRequest.from(authorizationRequest)
            .authorizationRequestUri(customAuthorizationRequestUri)
            .build();
}

6.6.8 OAuth2AccessTokenResponseClient

The primary role of the OAuth2AccessTokenResponseClient is to exchange an authorization grant credential for an access token credential at the Authorization Server’s Token Endpoint.

The default implementation of OAuth2AccessTokenResponseClient for the authorization_code grant is DefaultAuthorizationCodeTokenResponseClient , which uses a RestOperations for exchanging an authorization code for an access token at the Token Endpoint.

The DefaultAuthorizationCodeTokenResponseClient is quite flexible as it allows you to customize the pre-processing of the Token Request and/or post-handling of the Token Response.

If you need to customize the pre-processing of the Token Request, you can provide DefaultAuthorizationCodeTokenResponseClient.setRequestEntityConverter() with a custom Converter<OAuth2AuthorizationCodeGrantRequest, RequestEntity<?>> . The default implementation OAuth2AuthorizationCodeGrantRequestEntityConverter builds a RequestEntity representation of a standard OAuth 2.0 Access Token Request. However, providing a custom Converter , would allow you to extend the standard Token Request and add a custom parameter for example.

Tip

The custom Converter must return a valid RequestEntity representation of an OAuth 2.0 Access Token Request that is understood by the intended OAuth 2.0 Provider.

On the other end, if you need to customize the post-handling of the Token Response, you will need to provide DefaultAuthorizationCodeTokenResponseClient.setRestOperations() with a custom configured RestOperations . The default RestOperations is configured as follows:

RestTemplate restTemplate = new RestTemplate(Arrays.asList(
        new FormHttpMessageConverter(),
        new OAuth2AccessTokenResponseHttpMessageConverter()));

restTemplate.setErrorHandler(new OAuth2ErrorResponseErrorHandler());

Tip

Spring MVC FormHttpMessageConverter is required as it’s used when sending the OAuth 2.0 Access Token Request.

OAuth2AccessTokenResponseHttpMessageConverter is a HttpMessageConverter for an OAuth 2.0 Access Token Response. You can provide OAuth2AccessTokenResponseHttpMessageConverter.setTokenResponseConverter() with a custom Converter<Map<String, String>, OAuth2AccessTokenResponse> that is used for converting the OAuth 2.0 Access Token Response parameters to an OAuth2AccessTokenResponse .

OAuth2ErrorResponseErrorHandler is a ResponseErrorHandler that can handle an OAuth 2.0 Error (400 Bad Request). It uses an OAuth2ErrorHttpMessageConverter for converting the OAuth 2.0 Error parameters to an OAuth2Error .

Whether you customize DefaultAuthorizationCodeTokenResponseClient or provide your own implementation of OAuth2AccessTokenResponseClient , you’ll need to configure it as shown in the following example:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class OAuth2ClientSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .oauth2Client()
                .authorizationCodeGrant()
                    .accessTokenResponseClient(this.customAccessTokenResponseClient())
                    ...
    }

    private OAuth2AccessTokenResponseClient<OAuth2AuthorizationCodeGrantRequest> customAccessTokenResponseClient() {
        ...
    }
}

6.7 OAuth 2.0 Login

The OAuth 2.0 Login feature provides an application with the capability to have users log in to the application by using their existing account at an OAuth 2.0 Provider (e.g. GitHub) or OpenID Connect 1.0 Provider (such as Google). OAuth 2.0 Login implements the use cases: "Login with Google" or "Login with GitHub".

Note

OAuth 2.0 Login is implemented by using the Authorization Code Grant , as specified in the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework and OpenID Connect Core 1.0.

6.7.1 Spring Boot 2.x Sample

Spring Boot 2.x brings full auto-configuration capabilities for OAuth 2.0 Login.

This section shows how to configure the OAuth 2.0 Login sample using Google as the Authentication Provider and covers the following topics:

Initial setup

To use Google’s OAuth 2.0 authentication system for login, you must set up a project in the Google API Console to obtain OAuth 2.0 credentials.

Note

Google’s OAuth 2.0 implementation for authentication conforms to the OpenID Connect 1.0 specification and is OpenID Certified.

Follow the instructions on the OpenID Connect page, starting in the section, "Setting up OAuth 2.0".

After completing the "Obtain OAuth 2.0 credentials" instructions, you should have a new OAuth Client with credentials consisting of a Client ID and a Client Secret.

Setting the redirect URI

The redirect URI is the path in the application that the end-user’s user-agent is redirected back to after they have authenticated with Google and have granted access to the OAuth Client (created in the previous step) on the Consent page.

In the "Set a redirect URI" sub-section, ensure that the Authorized redirect URIs field is set to http://localhost:8080/login/oauth2/code/google .

Tip

The default redirect URI template is {baseUrl}/login/oauth2/code/{registrationId} . The registrationId is a unique identifier for the ClientRegistration.

Configure application.yml

Now that you have a new OAuth Client with Google, you need to configure the application to use the OAuth Client for the authentication flow . To do so:

  • Go to application.yml and set the following configuration:
spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      client:
        registration:   (1)
          google:   (2)
            client-id: google-client-id
            client-secret: google-client-secret

Example 6.1. OAuth Client properties

  • (1) spring.security.oauth2.client.registration is the base property prefix for OAuth Client properties.

  • (2) Following the base property prefix is the ID for the ClientRegistration, such as google.

  • Replace the values in the client-id and client-secret property with the OAuth 2.0 credentials you created earlier.

Boot up the application

Launch the Spring Boot 2.x sample and go to http://localhost:8080 . You are then redirected to the default auto-generated login page, which displays a link for Google.

Click on the Google link, and you are then redirected to Google for authentication.

After authenticating with your Google account credentials, the next page presented to you is the Consent screen. The Consent screen asks you to either allow or deny access to the OAuth Client you created earlier. Click Allow to authorize the OAuth Client to access your email address and basic profile information.

At this point, the OAuth Client retrieves your email address and basic profile information from the UserInfo Endpoint and establishes an authenticated session.

6.7.2 Spring Boot 2.x Property Mappings

The following table outlines the mapping of the Spring Boot 2.x OAuth Client properties to the ClientRegistration properties.

Spring Boot 2.xClientRegistration
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId]registrationId
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].client-idclientId
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].client-secretclientSecret
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].client-authentication-methodclientAuthenticationMethod
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].authorization-grant-typeauthorizationGrantType
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].redirect-uriredirectUriTemplate
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].scopescopes
spring.security.oauth2.client.registration.[registrationId].client-nameclientName
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].authorization-uriproviderDetails.authorizationUri
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].token-uriproviderDetails.tokenUri
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].jwk-set-uriproviderDetails.jwkSetUri
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].user-info-uriproviderDetails.userInfoEndpoint.uri
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].user-info-authentication-methodproviderDetails.userInfoEndpoint.authenticationMethod
spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId].userNameAttributeproviderDetails.userInfoEndpoint.userNameAttributeName

6.7.3 CommonOAuth2Provider

CommonOAuth2Provider pre-defines a set of default client properties for a number of well known providers: Google, GitHub, Facebook, and Okta.

For example, the authorization-uri , token-uri , and user-info-uri do not change often for a Provider. Therefore, it makes sense to provide default values in order to reduce the required configuration.

As demonstrated previously, when we configured a Google client, only the client-id and client-secret properties are required.

The following listing shows an example:

spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      client:
        registration:
          google:
            client-id: google-client-id
            client-secret: google-client-secret

Tip

The auto-defaulting of client properties works seamlessly here because the registrationId ( google ) matches the GOOGLE enum (case-insensitive) in CommonOAuth2Provider .

For cases where you may want to specify a different registrationId , such as google-login , you can still leverage auto-defaulting of client properties by configuring the provider property.

The following listing shows an example:

spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      client:
        registration:
          google-login: (1)
            provider: google    (2)
            client-id: google-client-id
            client-secret: google-client-secret
  • (1) The registrationId is set to google-login .
  • (2) The provider property is set to google , which will leverage the auto-defaulting of client properties set in CommonOAuth2Provider.GOOGLE.getBuilder() .

6.7.4 Configuring Custom Provider Properties

There are some OAuth 2.0 Providers that support multi-tenancy, which results in different protocol endpoints for each tenant (or sub-domain).

For example, an OAuth Client registered with Okta is assigned to a specific sub-domain and have their own protocol endpoints.

For these cases, Spring Boot 2.x provides the following base property for configuring custom provider properties: spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.[providerId] .

The following listing shows an example:

spring:
  security:
    oauth2:
      client:
        registration:
          okta:
            client-id: okta-client-id
            client-secret: okta-client-secret
        provider:
          okta: (1)
            authorization-uri: https://your-subdomain.oktapreview.com/oauth2/v1/authorize
            token-uri: https://your-subdomain.oktapreview.com/oauth2/v1/token
            user-info-uri: https://your-subdomain.oktapreview.com/oauth2/v1/userinfo
            user-name-attribute: sub
            jwk-set-uri: https://your-subdomain.oktapreview.com/oauth2/v1/keys
  • (1) The base property ( spring.security.oauth2.client.provider.okta ) allows for custom configuration of protocol endpoint locations.

6.7.5 Overriding Spring Boot 2.x Auto-configuration

The Spring Boot 2.x auto-configuration class for OAuth Client support is OAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration .

It performs the following tasks:

  • Registers a ClientRegistrationRepository @Bean composed of ClientRegistration (s) from the configured OAuth Client properties.

  • Provides a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter @Configuration and enables OAuth 2.0 Login through httpSecurity.oauth2Login() .

If you need to override the auto-configuration based on your specific requirements, you may do so in the following ways:

Register a ClientRegistrationRepository @Bean

The following example shows how to register a ClientRegistrationRepository @Bean :

@Configuration
public class OAuth2LoginConfig {

    @Bean
    public ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository() {
        return new InMemoryClientRegistrationRepository(this.googleClientRegistration());
    }

    private ClientRegistration googleClientRegistration() {
        return ClientRegistration.withRegistrationId("google")
            .clientId("google-client-id")
            .clientSecret("google-client-secret")
            .clientAuthenticationMethod(ClientAuthenticationMethod.BASIC)
            .authorizationGrantType(AuthorizationGrantType.AUTHORIZATION_CODE)
            .redirectUriTemplate("{baseUrl}/login/oauth2/code/{registrationId}")
            .scope("openid", "profile", "email", "address", "phone")
            .authorizationUri("https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/v2/auth")
            .tokenUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v4/token")
            .userInfoUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/userinfo")
            .userNameAttributeName(IdTokenClaimNames.SUB)
            .jwkSetUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/certs")
            .clientName("Google")
            .build();
    }
}

Provide a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter

The following example shows how to provide a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter with @EnableWebSecurity and enable OAuth 2.0 login through httpSecurity.oauth2Login() :

@EnableWebSecurity
public class OAuth2LoginSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2Login();
    }
}

Completely Override the Auto-configuration

The following example shows how to completely override the auto-configuration by registering a ClientRegistrationRepository @Bean and providing a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter .

@Configuration
public class OAuth2LoginConfig {

    @EnableWebSecurity
    public static class OAuth2LoginSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

        @Override
        protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
            http
                .authorizeRequests()
                    .anyRequest().authenticated()
                    .and()
                .oauth2Login();
        }
    }

    @Bean
    public ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository() {
        return new InMemoryClientRegistrationRepository(this.googleClientRegistration());
    }

    private ClientRegistration googleClientRegistration() {
        return ClientRegistration.withRegistrationId("google")
            .clientId("google-client-id")
            .clientSecret("google-client-secret")
            .clientAuthenticationMethod(ClientAuthenticationMethod.BASIC)
            .authorizationGrantType(AuthorizationGrantType.AUTHORIZATION_CODE)
            .redirectUriTemplate("{baseUrl}/login/oauth2/code/{registrationId}")
            .scope("openid", "profile", "email", "address", "phone")
            .authorizationUri("https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/v2/auth")
            .tokenUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v4/token")
            .userInfoUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/userinfo")
            .userNameAttributeName(IdTokenClaimNames.SUB)
            .jwkSetUri("https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/certs")
            .clientName("Google")
            .build();
    }
}

6.7.6 Java Configuration without Spring Boot 2.x

If you are not able to use Spring Boot 2.x and would like to configure one of the pre-defined providers in CommonOAuth2Provider (for example, Google), apply the following configuration:

@Configuration
public class OAuth2LoginConfig {

    @EnableWebSecurity
    public static class OAuth2LoginSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

        @Override
        protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
            http
                .authorizeRequests()
                    .anyRequest().authenticated()
                    .and()
                .oauth2Login();
        }
    }

    @Bean
    public ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository() {
        return new InMemoryClientRegistrationRepository(this.googleClientRegistration());
    }

    @Bean
    public OAuth2AuthorizedClientService authorizedClientService(
            ClientRegistrationRepository clientRegistrationRepository) {
        return new InMemoryOAuth2AuthorizedClientService(clientRegistrationRepository);
    }

    @Bean
    public OAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository authorizedClientRepository(
            OAuth2AuthorizedClientService authorizedClientService) {
        return new AuthenticatedPrincipalOAuth2AuthorizedClientRepository(authorizedClientService);
    }

    private ClientRegistration googleClientRegistration() {
        return CommonOAuth2Provider.GOOGLE.getBuilder("google")
            .clientId("google-client-id")
            .clientSecret("google-client-secret")
            .build();
    }
}

6.7.7 Additional Resources

The following additional resources describe advanced configuration options:

6.8 OAuth 2.0 Resource Server

Spring Security supports protecting endpoints using JWT-encoded OAuth 2.0 Bearer Tokens.

This is handy in circumstances where an application has federated its authority management out to an authorization server (for example, Okta or Ping Identity). This authorization server can be consulted by Resource Servers to validate authority when serving requests.

Note

A complete working example can be found in OAuth 2.0 Resource Server Servlet sample.

6.8.1 Dependencies

Most Resource Server support is collected into spring-security-oauth2-resource-server . However, the support for decoding and verifying JWTs is in spring-security-oauth2-jose , meaning that both are necessary in order to have a working resource server that supports JWT-encoded Bearer Tokens.

6.8.2 Minimal Configuration

When using Spring Boot, configuring an application as a resource server consists of two basic steps. First, include the needed dependencies and second, indicate the location of the authorization server.

Specifying the Authorization Server

To specify which authorization server to use, simply do:

security:
  oauth2:
    resourceserver:
      jwt:
        issuer-uri: https://idp.example.com

Where https://idp.example.com is the value contained in the iss claim for JWT tokens that the authorization server will issue. Resource Server will use this property to further self-configure, discover the authorization server’s public keys, and subsequently validate incoming JWTs.

Note

To use the issuer-uri property, it must also be true that https://idp.example.com/.well-known/openid-configuration is a supported endpoint for the authorization server. This endpoint is referred to as a Provider Configuration endpoint.

And that’s it!

Startup Expectations

When this property and these dependencies are used, Resource Server will automatically configure itself to validate JWT-encoded Bearer Tokens.

It achieves this through a deterministic startup process:

  • Hit the Provider Configuration endpoint, https://idp.example.com/.well-known/openid-configuration , processing the response for the jwks_url property

  • Configure the validation strategy to query jwks_url for valid public keys

  • Configure the validation strategy to validate each JWTs iss claim against https://idp.example.com .

A consequence of this process is that the authorization server must be up and receiving requests in order for Resource Server to successfully start up.

Note

If the authorization server is down when Resource Server queries it (given appropriate timeouts), then startup will fail.

Runtime Expectations

Once the application is started up, Resource Server will attempt to process any request containing an Authorization: Bearer header:

GET / HTTP/1.1
Authorization: Bearer some-token-value # Resource Server will process this

So long as this scheme is indicated, Resource Server will attempt to process the request according to the Bearer Token specification.

Given a well-formed JWT token, Resource Server will

  • Validate its signature against a public key obtained from the jwks_url endpoint during startup and matched against the JWTs header

  • Validate the JWTs exp and nbf timestamps and the JWTs iss claim, and

  • Map each scope to an authority with the prefix SCOPE_ .

Note

As the authorization server makes available new keys, Spring Security will automatically rotate the keys used to validate the JWT tokens.

The resulting Authentication#getPrincipal , by default, is a Spring Security Jwt object, and Authentication#getName maps to the JWT’s sub property, if one is present.

From here, consider jumping to:

How to Configure without Tying Resource Server startup to an authorization server’s availability

How to Configure without Spring Boot

6.8.3 Specifying the Authorization Server JWK Set Uri Directly

If the authorization server doesn’t support the Provider Configuration endpoint, or if Resource Server must be able to start up independently from the authorization server, then issuer-uri can be exchanged for jwk-set-uri :

security:
  oauth2:
    resourceserver:
      jwt:
        jwk-set-uri: https://idp.example.com/.well-known/jwks.json

Note

The JWK Set uri is not standardized, but can typically be found in the authorization server’s documentation

Consequently, Resource Server will not ping the authorization server at startup. However, it will also no longer validate the iss claim in the JWT (since Resource Server no longer knows what the issuer value should be).

Note

This property can also be supplied directly on the DSL.

6.8.4 Overriding or Replacing Boot Auto Configuration

There are two @Bean s that Spring Boot generates on Resource Server’s behalf.

The first is a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter that configures the app as a resource server:

protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
    http
        .authorizeRequests()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            .and()
        .oauth2ResourceServer()
            .jwt();
}

If the application doesn’t expose a WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter bean, then Spring Boot will expose the above default one.

Replacing this is as simple as exposing the bean within the application:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class MyCustomSecurityConfiguration extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .mvcMatchers("/messages/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_message:read")
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt()
                    .jwtAuthenticationConverter(myConverter());
    }
}

The above requires the scope of message:read for any URL that starts with /messages/ .

Methods on the oauth2ResourceServer DSL will also override or replace auto configuration.

For example, the second @Bean Spring Boot creates is a JwtDecoder , which decodes String tokens into validated instances of Jwt :

@Bean
public JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    return JwtDecoders.fromOidcIssuerLocation(issuerUri);
}

If the application doesn’t expose a JwtDecoder bean, then Spring Boot will expose the above default one.

And its configuration can be overridden using jwkSetUri() or replaced using decoder() .

Using jwkSetUri()

An authorization server’s JWK Set Uri can be configured as a configuration property or it can be supplied in the DSL:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class DirectlyConfiguredJwkSetUri extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt()
                    .jwkSetUri("https://idp.example.com/.well-known/jwks.json");
    }
}

Using jwkSetUri() takes precedence over any configuration property.

Using decoder()

More powerful than jwkSetUri() is decoder() , which will completely replace any Boot auto configuration of JwtDecoder :

@EnableWebSecurity
public class DirectlyConfiguredJwkSetUri extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt()
                    .decoder(myCustomDecoder());
    }
}

This is handy when deeper configuration, like validation, mapping, or request timeouts, is necessary.

Exposing a JwtDecoder @Bean

Or, exposing a JwtDecoder @Bean has the same effect as decoder() :

@Bean
public JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    return new NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport(jwkSetUri);
}

6.8.5 Configuring Authorization

A JWT that is issued from an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server will typically either have a scope or scp attribute, indicating the scopes (or authorities) it’s been granted, for example:

{ …, "scope" : "messages contacts"}

When this is the case, Resource Server will attempt to coerce these scopes into a list of granted authorities, prefixing each scope with the string "SCOPE_".

This means that to protect an endpoint or method with a scope derived from a JWT, the corresponding expressions should include this prefix:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class DirectlyConfiguredJwkSetUri extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .mvcMatchers("/contacts/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_contacts")
                .mvcMatchers("/messages/**").hasAuthority("SCOPE_messages")
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt();
    }
}

Or similarly with method security:

@PreAuthorize("hasAuthority('SCOPE_messages')")
public List<Message> getMessages(...) {}

Extracting Authorities Manually

However, there are a number of circumstances where this default is insufficient. For example, some authorization servers don’t use the scope attribute, but instead have their own custom attribute. Or, at other times, the resource server may need to adapt the attribute or a composition of attributes into internalized authorities.

To this end, the DSL exposes jwtAuthenticationConverter() :

@EnableWebSecurity
public class DirectlyConfiguredJwkSetUri extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) {
        http
            .authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
            .oauth2ResourceServer()
                .jwt()
                    .jwtAuthenticationConverter(grantedAuthoritiesExtractor());
    }
}

Converter<Jwt, AbstractAuthenticationToken> grantedAuthoritiesExtractor() {
    return new GrantedAuthoritiesExtractor();
}

which is responsible for converting a Jwt into an Authentication .

We can override this quite simply to alter the way granted authorities are derived:

static class GrantedAuthoritiesExtractor extends JwtAuthenticationConverter {
    protected Collection<GrantedAuthorities> extractAuthorities(Jwt jwt) {
        Collection<String> authorities = (Collection<String>)
                jwt.getClaims().get("mycustomclaim");

        return authorities.stream()
                .map(SimpleGrantedAuthority::new)
                .collect(Collectors.toList());
    }
}

For more flexibility, the DSL supports entirely replacing the converter with any class that implements Converter<Jwt, AbstractAuthenticationToken> :

static class CustomAuthenticationConverter implements Converter<Jwt, AbstractAuthenticationToken> {
    public AbstractAuthenticationToken convert(Jwt jwt) {
        return new CustomAuthenticationToken(jwt);
    }
}

6.8.6 Configuring Validation

Using minimal Spring Boot configuration, indicating the authorization server’s issuer uri, Resource Server will default to verifying the iss claim as well as the exp and nbf timestamp claims.

In circumstances where validation needs to be customized, Resource Server ships with two standard validators and also accepts custom OAuth2TokenValidator instances.

Customizing Timestamp Validation

JWT’s typically have a window of validity, with the start of the window indicated in the nbf claim and the end indicated in the exp claim.

However, every server can experience clock drift, which can cause tokens to appear expired to one server, but not to another. This can cause some implementation heartburn as the number of collaborating servers increases in a distributed system.

Resource Server uses JwtTimestampValidator to verify a token’s validity window, and it can be configured with a clockSkew to alleviate the above problem:

@Bean
JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
     NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport jwtDecoder = (NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport)
             JwtDecoders.withOidcIssuerLocation(issuerUri);

     OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> withClockSkew = new DelegatingOAuth2TokenValidator<>(
            new JwtTimestampValidator(Duration.ofSeconds(60)),
            new IssuerValidator(issuerUri));

     jwtDecoder.setJwtValidator(withClockSkew);

     return jwtDecoder;
}

Note

By default, Resource Server configures a clock skew of 30 seconds.

Configuring a Custom Validator

Adding a check for the aud claim is simple with the OAuth2TokenValidator API:

public class AudienceValidator implements OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> {
    OAuth2Error error = new OAuth2Error("invalid_token", "The required audience is missing", null);

    public OAuth2TokenValidatorResult validate(Jwt jwt) {
        if (jwt.getAudience().contains("messaging")) {
            return OAuth2TokenValidatorResult.success();
        } else {
            return OAuth2TokenValidatorResult.failure(error);
        }
    }
}

Then, to add into a resource server, it’s a matter of specifying the JwtDecoder instance:

@Bean
JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport jwtDecoder = (NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport)
        JwtDecoders.withOidcIssuerLocation(issuerUri);

    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> audienceValidator = new AudienceValidator();
    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> withIssuer = JwtValidators.createDefaultWithIssuer(issuerUri);
    OAuth2TokenValidator<Jwt> withAudience = new DelegatingOAuth2TokenValidator<>(withIssuer, audienceValidator);

    jwtDecoder.setJwtValidator(withAudience);

    return jwtDecoder;
}

6.8.7 Configuring Claim Set Mapping

Spring Security uses the Nimbus library for parsing JWTs and validating their signatures. Consequently, Spring Security is subject to Nimbus’s interpretation of each field value and how to coerce each into a Java type.

For example, because Nimbus remains Java 7 compatible, it doesn’t use Instant to represent timestamp fields.

And it’s entirely possible to use a different library or for JWT processing, which may make its own coercion decisions that need adjustment.

Or, quite simply, a resource server may want to add or remove claims from a JWT for domain-specific reasons.

For these purposes, Resource Server supports mapping the JWT claim set with MappedJwtClaimSetConverter .

Customizing the Conversion of a Single Claim

By default, MappedJwtClaimSetConverter will attempt to coerce claims into the following types:

ClaimJava Type
audCollection<String>
expInstant
iatInstant
issString
jtiString
nbfInstant
subString

An individual claim’s conversion strategy can be configured using MappedJwtClaimSetConverter.withDefaults :

@Bean
JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport jwtDecoder = new NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport(jwkSetUri);

    MappedJwtClaimSetConverter converter = MappedJwtClaimSetConverter
            .withDefaults(Collections.singletonMap("sub", this::lookupUserIdBySub));
    jwtDecoder.setJwtClaimSetConverter(converter);

    return jwtDecoder;
}

This will keep all the defaults, except it will override the default claim converter for sub .

Adding a Claim

MappedJwtClaimSetConverter can also be used to add a custom claim, for example, to adapt to an existing system:

MappedJwtClaimSetConverter.withDefaults(Collections.singletonMap("custom", custom -> "value"));

Removing a Claim

And removing a claim is also simple, using the same API:

MappedJwtClaimSetConverter.withDefaults(Collections.singletonMap("legacyclaim", legacy -> null));

Renaming a Claim

In more sophisticated scenarios, like consulting multiple claims at once or renaming a claim, Resource Server accepts any class that implements Converter<Map<String, Object>, Map<String,Object>> :

public class UsernameSubClaimAdapter implements Converter<Map<String, Object>, Map<String, Object>> {
    private final MappedJwtClaimSetConverter delegate =
            MappedJwtClaimSetConverter.withDefaults(Collections.emptyMap());

    public Map<String, Object> convert(Map<String, Object> claims) {
        Map<String, Object> convertedClaims = this.delegate.convert(claims);

        String username = (String) convertedClaims.get("user_name");
        convertedClaims.put("sub", username);

        return convertedClaims;
    }
}

And then, the instance can be supplied like normal:

@Bean
JwtDecoder jwtDecoder() {
    NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport jwtDecoder = new NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport(jwkSetUri);
    jwtDecoder.setJwtClaimSetConverter(new UsernameSubClaimAdapter());
    return jwtDecoder;
}

6.8.8 Configuring Timeouts

By default, Resource Server uses connection and socket timeouts of 30 seconds each for coordinating with the authorization server.

This may be too short in some scenarios. Further, it doesn’t take into account more sophisticated patterns like back-off and discovery.

To adjust the way in which Resource Server connects to the authorization server, NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport accepts an instance of RestOperations :

@Bean
public JwtDecoder jwtDecoder(RestTemplateBuilder builder) {
    RestOperations rest = builder
            .setConnectionTimeout(60000)
            .setReadTimeout(60000)
            .build();

    NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport jwtDecoder = new NimbusJwtDecoderJwkSupport(jwkSetUri);
    jwtDecoder.setRestOperations(rest);
    return jwtDecoder;
}

6.9 Authentication

Thus far we have only taken a look at the most basic authentication configuration. Let’s take a look at a few slightly more advanced options for configuring authentication.

6.9.1 In-Memory Authentication

We have already seen an example of configuring in-memory authentication for a single user. Below is an example to configure multiple users:

@Bean
public UserDetailsService userDetailsService() throws Exception {
    // ensure the passwords are encoded properly
    UserBuilder users = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder();
    InMemoryUserDetailsManager manager = new InMemoryUserDetailsManager();
    manager.createUser(users.username("user").password("password").roles("USER").build());
    manager.createUser(users.username("admin").password("password").roles("USER","ADMIN").build());
    return manager;
}

6.9.2 JDBC Authentication

You can find the updates to support JDBC based authentication. The example below assumes that you have already defined a DataSource within your application. The jdbc-javaconfig sample provides a complete example of using JDBC based authentication.

@Autowired
private DataSource dataSource;

@Autowired
public void configureGlobal(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
    // ensure the passwords are encoded properly
    UserBuilder users = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder();
    auth
        .jdbcAuthentication()
            .dataSource(dataSource)
            .withDefaultSchema()
            .withUser(users.username("user").password("password").roles("USER"))
            .withUser(users.username("admin").password("password").roles("USER","ADMIN"));
}

6.9.3 LDAP Authentication

You can find the updates to support LDAP based authentication. The ldap-javaconfig sample provides a complete example of using LDAP based authentication.

@Autowired
private DataSource dataSource;

@Autowired
public void configureGlobal(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
    auth
        .ldapAuthentication()
            .userDnPatterns("uid={0},ou=people")
            .groupSearchBase("ou=groups");
}

The example above uses the following LDIF and an embedded Apache DS LDAP instance.

users.ldif.

dn: ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: groups

dn: ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: organizationalUnit
ou: people

dn: uid=admin,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Rod Johnson
sn: Johnson
uid: admin
userPassword: password

dn: uid=user,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetOrgPerson
cn: Dianne Emu
sn: Emu
uid: user
userPassword: password

dn: cn=user,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfNames
cn: user
uniqueMember: uid=admin,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org
uniqueMember: uid=user,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org

dn: cn=admin,ou=groups,dc=springframework,dc=org
objectclass: top
objectclass: groupOfNames
cn: admin
uniqueMember: uid=admin,ou=people,dc=springframework,dc=org

6.9.4 AuthenticationProvider

You can define custom authentication by exposing a custom AuthenticationProvider as a bean. For example, the following will customize authentication assuming that SpringAuthenticationProvider implements AuthenticationProvider :

Note

This is only used if the AuthenticationManagerBuilder has not been populated

@Bean
public SpringAuthenticationProvider springAuthenticationProvider() {
    return new SpringAuthenticationProvider();
}

6.9.5 UserDetailsService

You can define custom authentication by exposing a custom UserDetailsService as a bean. For example, the following will customize authentication assuming that SpringDataUserDetailsService implements UserDetailsService :

Note

This is only used if the AuthenticationManagerBuilder has not been populated and no AuthenticationProviderBean is defined.

@Bean
public SpringDataUserDetailsService springDataUserDetailsService() {
    return new SpringDataUserDetailsService();
}

You can also customize how passwords are encoded by exposing a PasswordEncoder as a bean. For example, if you use bcrypt you can add a bean definition as shown below:

@Bean
public BCryptPasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
    return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
}

6.10 Multiple HttpSecurity

We can configure multiple HttpSecurity instances just as we can have multiple <http> blocks. The key is to extend the WebSecurityConfigurationAdapter multiple times. For example, the following is an example of having a different configuration for URL’s that start with /api/ .

@EnableWebSecurity
public class MultiHttpSecurityConfig {
    @Bean                                                             (1)
    public UserDetailsService userDetailsService() throws Exception {
        // ensure the passwords are encoded properly
        UserBuilder users = User.withDefaultPasswordEncoder();
        InMemoryUserDetailsManager manager = new InMemoryUserDetailsManager();
        manager.createUser(users.username("user").password("password").roles("USER").build());
        manager.createUser(users.username("admin").password("password").roles("USER","ADMIN").build());
        return manager;
    }

    @Configuration
    @Order(1)                                                        (2)
    public static class ApiWebSecurityConfigurationAdapter extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
        protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
            http
                .antMatcher("/api/**")                               (3)
                .authorizeRequests()
                    .anyRequest().hasRole("ADMIN")
                    .and()
                .httpBasic();
        }
    }

    @Configuration                                                   (4)
    public static class FormLoginWebSecurityConfigurerAdapter extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

        @Override
        protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
            http
                .authorizeRequests()
                    .anyRequest().authenticated()
                    .and()
                .formLogin();
        }
    }
}
  • (1) Configure Authentication as normal
  • (2) Create an instance of WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter that contains @Order to specify which WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter should be considered first.
  • (3) The http.antMatcher states that this HttpSecurity will only be applicable to URLs that start with /api/
  • (4) Create another instance of WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter . If the URL does not start with /api/ this configuration will be used. This configuration is considered after ApiWebSecurityConfigurationAdapter since it has an @Order value after 1 (no @Order defaults to last).

6.11 Method Security

From version 2.0 onwards Spring Security has improved support substantially for adding security to your service layer methods. It provides support for JSR-250 annotation security as well as the framework’s original @Secured annotation. From 3.0 you can also make use of new expression-based annotations. You can apply security to a single bean, using the intercept-methods element to decorate the bean declaration, or you can secure multiple beans across the entire service layer using the AspectJ style pointcuts.

6.11.1 EnableGlobalMethodSecurity

We can enable annotation-based security using the @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity annotation on any @Configuration instance. For example, the following would enable Spring Security’s @Secured annotation.

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(securedEnabled = true)
public class MethodSecurityConfig {
// ...
}

Adding an annotation to a method (on a class or interface) would then limit the access to that method accordingly. Spring Security’s native annotation support defines a set of attributes for the method. These will be passed to the AccessDecisionManager for it to make the actual decision:

public interface BankService {

@Secured("IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY")
public Account readAccount(Long id);

@Secured("IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY")
public Account[] findAccounts();

@Secured("ROLE_TELLER")
public Account post(Account account, double amount);
}

Support for JSR-250 annotations can be enabled using

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(jsr250Enabled = true)
public class MethodSecurityConfig {
// ...
}

These are standards-based and allow simple role-based constraints to be applied but do not have the power Spring Security’s native annotations. To use the new expression-based syntax, you would use

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class MethodSecurityConfig {
// ...
}

and the equivalent Java code would be

public interface BankService {

@PreAuthorize("isAnonymous()")
public Account readAccount(Long id);

@PreAuthorize("isAnonymous()")
public Account[] findAccounts();

@PreAuthorize("hasAuthority('ROLE_TELLER')")
public Account post(Account account, double amount);
}

6.11.2 GlobalMethodSecurityConfiguration

Sometimes you may need to perform operations that are more complicated than are possible with the @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity annotation allow. For these instances, you can extend the GlobalMethodSecurityConfiguration ensuring that the @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity annotation is present on your subclass. For example, if you wanted to provide a custom MethodSecurityExpressionHandler , you could use the following configuration:

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class MethodSecurityConfig extends GlobalMethodSecurityConfiguration {
    @Override
    protected MethodSecurityExpressionHandler createExpressionHandler() {
        // ... create and return custom MethodSecurityExpressionHandler ...
        return expressionHandler;
    }
}

For additional information about methods that can be overridden, refer to the GlobalMethodSecurityConfiguration Javadoc.

6.12 Post Processing Configured Objects

Spring Security’s Java Configuration does not expose every property of every object that it configures. This simplifies the configuration for a majority of users. Afterall, if every property was exposed, users could use standard bean configuration.

While there are good reasons to not directly expose every property, users may still need more advanced configuration options. To address this Spring Security introduces the concept of an ObjectPostProcessor which can be used to modify or replace many of the Object instances created by the Java Configuration. For example, if you wanted to configure the filterSecurityPublishAuthorizationSuccess property on FilterSecurityInterceptor you could use the following:

@Override
protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
        .authorizeRequests()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            .withObjectPostProcessor(new ObjectPostProcessor<FilterSecurityInterceptor>() {
                public <O extends FilterSecurityInterceptor> O postProcess(
                        O fsi) {
                    fsi.setPublishAuthorizationSuccess(true);
                    return fsi;
                }
            });
}

6.13 Custom DSLs

You can provide your own custom DSLs in Spring Security. For example, you might have something that looks like this:

public class MyCustomDsl extends AbstractHttpConfigurer<MyCustomDsl, HttpSecurity> {
    private boolean flag;

    @Override
    public void init(H http) throws Exception {
        // any method that adds another configurer
        // must be done in the init method
        http.csrf().disable();
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(H http) throws Exception {
        ApplicationContext context = http.getSharedObject(ApplicationContext.class);

        // here we lookup from the ApplicationContext. You can also just create a new instance.
        MyFilter myFilter = context.getBean(MyFilter.class);
        myFilter.setFlag(flag);
        http.addFilterBefore(myFilter, UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
    }

    public MyCustomDsl flag(boolean value) {
        this.flag = value;
        return this;
    }

    public static MyCustomDsl customDsl() {
        return new MyCustomDsl();
    }
}

Note

This is actually how methods like HttpSecurity.authorizeRequests() are implemented.

The custom DSL can then be used like this:

@EnableWebSecurity
public class Config extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .apply(customDsl())
                .flag(true)
                .and()
            ...;
    }
}

The code is invoked in the following order:

  • Code in `Config`s configure method is invoked

  • Code in `MyCustomDsl`s init method is invoked

  • Code in `MyCustomDsl`s configure method is invoked

If you want, you can have WebSecurityConfiguerAdapter add MyCustomDsl by default by using SpringFactories . For example, you would create a resource on the classpath named META-INF/spring.factories with the following contents:

META-INF/spring.factories.

org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configurers.AbstractHttpConfigurer = sample.MyCustomDsl

Users wishing to disable the default can do so explicitly.

@EnableWebSecurity
public class Config extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http
            .apply(customDsl()).disable()
            ...;
    }
}