## On this page

# Sanctuary v3.1.0

Refuge from unsafe JavaScript

## Overview

Sanctuary is a JavaScript functional programming library inspired by Haskell and PureScript. It's stricter than Ramda, and provides a similar suite of functions.

Sanctuary promotes programs composed of simple, pure functions. Such programs are easier to comprehend, test, and maintain – they are also a pleasure to write.

Sanctuary provides two data types, Maybe and Either, both of which are compatible with Fantasy Land. Thanks to these data types even Sanctuary functions that may fail, such as `head`

, are composable.

Sanctuary makes it possible to write safe code without null checks. In JavaScript it's trivial to introduce a possible run-time type error.

Sanctuary is designed to work in Node.js and in ES5-compatible browsers.

## Sponsors

Development of Sanctuary is funded by the following community-minded **partners**:

Fink is a small, friendly, and passionate gang of IT consultants. We love what we do, which is mostly web and app development, including graphic design, interaction design, back-end and front-end coding, and ensuring the stuff we make works as intended. Our company is entirely employee-owned; we place great importance on the well-being of every employee, both professionally and personally.

Development of Sanctuary is further encouraged by the following generous **supporters**:

Become a sponsor if you would like the Sanctuary ecosystem to grow even stronger.

## Folktale

Folktale, like Sanctuary, is a standard library for functional programming in JavaScript. It is well designed and well documented. Whereas Sanctuary treats JavaScript as a member of the ML language family, Folktale embraces JavaScript's object-oriented programming model. Programming with Folktale resembles programming with Scala.

## Ramda

Ramda provides several functions that return problematic values such as `undefined`

, `Infinity`

, or `NaN`

when applied to unsuitable inputs. These are known as partial functions. Partial functions necessitate the use of guards or null checks. In order to safely use `R.head`

, for example, one must ensure that the array is non-empty:

```
if (R.isEmpty (xs)) {
// ...
} else {
return f (R.head (xs));
}
```

Using the Maybe type renders such guards (and null checks) unnecessary. Changing functions such as `R.head`

to return Maybe values was proposed in ramda/ramda#683, but was considered too much of a stretch for JavaScript programmers. Sanctuary was released the following month, in January 2015, as a companion library to Ramda.

In addition to broadening in scope in the years since its release, Sanctuary's philosophy has diverged from Ramda's in several respects.

### Totality

Every Sanctuary function is defined for every value that is a member of the function's input type. Such functions are known as total functions. Ramda, on the other hand, contains a number of partial functions.

### Information preservation

Certain Sanctuary functions preserve more information than their Ramda counterparts. Examples:

```
|> R.tail ([]) |> S.tail ([])
[] Nothing
|> R.tail (['foo']) |> S.tail (['foo'])
[] Just ([])
|> R.replace (/^x/) ('') ('abc') |> S.stripPrefix ('x') ('abc')
'abc' Nothing
|> R.replace (/^x/) ('') ('xabc') |> S.stripPrefix ('x') ('xabc')
'abc' Just ('abc')
```

### Invariants

Sanctuary performs rigorous type checking of inputs and outputs, and throws a descriptive error if a type error is encountered. This allows bugs to be caught and fixed early in the development cycle.

Ramda operates on the garbage in, garbage out principle. Functions are documented to take arguments of particular types, but these invariants are not enforced. The problem with this approach in a language as permissive as JavaScript is that there's no guarantee that garbage input will produce garbage output (ramda/ramda#1413). Ramda performs ad hoc type checking in some such cases (ramda/ramda#1419).

Sanctuary can be configured to operate in garbage in, garbage out mode. Ramda cannot be configured to enforce its invariants.

### Currying

Sanctuary functions are curried. There is, for example, exactly one way to apply `S.reduce`

to `S.add`

, `0`

, and `xs`

:

`S.reduce (S.add) (0) (xs)`

Ramda functions are also curried, but in a complex manner. There are four ways to apply `R.reduce`

to `R.add`

, `0`

, and `xs`

:

`R.reduce (R.add) (0) (xs)`

`R.reduce (R.add) (0, xs)`

`R.reduce (R.add, 0) (xs)`

`R.reduce (R.add, 0, xs)`

Ramda supports all these forms because curried functions enable partial application, one of the library's tenets, but `f(x)(y)(z)`

is considered too unfamiliar and too unattractive to appeal to JavaScript programmers.

Sanctuary's developers prefer a simple, unfamiliar construct to a complex, familiar one. Familiarity can be acquired; complexity is intrinsic.

The lack of breathing room in `f(x)(y)(z)`

impairs readability. The simple solution to this problem, proposed in #438, is to include a space when applying a function: `f (x) (y) (z)`

.

Ramda also provides a special placeholder value, `R.__`

, that removes the restriction that a function must be applied to its arguments in order. The following expressions are equivalent:

`R.reduce (R.__, 0, xs) (R.add)`

`R.reduce (R.add, R.__, xs) (0)`

`R.reduce (R.__, 0) (R.add) (xs)`

`R.reduce (R.__, 0) (R.add, xs)`

`R.reduce (R.__, R.__, xs) (R.add) (0)`

`R.reduce (R.__, R.__, xs) (R.add, 0)`

### Variadic functions

Ramda provides several functions that take any number of arguments. These are known as variadic functions. Additionally, Ramda provides several functions that take variadic functions as arguments. Although natural in a dynamically typed language, variadic functions are at odds with the type notation Ramda and Sanctuary both use, leading to some indecipherable type signatures such as this one:

```
R.lift :: (*... -> *...) -> ([*]... -> [*])
```

Sanctuary has no variadic functions, nor any functions that take variadic functions as arguments. Sanctuary provides two "lift" functions, each with a helpful type signature:

```
S.lift2 :: Apply f => (a -> b -> c) -> f a -> f b -> f c
S.lift3 :: Apply f => (a -> b -> c -> d) -> f a -> f b -> f c -> f d
```

### Implicit context

Ramda provides `R.bind`

and `R.invoker`

for working with methods. Additionally, many Ramda functions use `Function#call`

or `Function#apply`

to preserve context. Sanctuary makes no allowances for `this`

.

### Transducers

Several Ramda functions act as transducers. Sanctuary provides no support for transducers.

### Modularity

Whereas Ramda has no dependencies, Sanctuary has a modular design: sanctuary-def provides type checking, sanctuary-type-classes provides Fantasy Land functions and type classes, sanctuary-show provides string representations, and algebraic data types are provided by sanctuary-either, sanctuary-maybe, and sanctuary-pair. Not only does this approach reduce the complexity of Sanctuary itself, but it allows these components to be reused in other contexts.

## Types

Sanctuary uses Haskell-like type signatures to describe the types of values, including functions. `'foo'`

, for example, is a member of `String`

; `[1, 2, 3]`

is a member of `Array Number`

. The double colon (`::`

) is used to mean "is a member of", so one could write:

```
'foo' :: String
[1, 2, 3] :: Array Number
```

An identifier may appear to the left of the double colon:

```
Math.PI :: Number
```

The arrow (`->`

) is used to express a function's type:

```
Math.abs :: Number -> Number
```

That states that `Math.abs`

is a unary function that takes an argument of type `Number`

and returns a value of type `Number`

.

Some functions are parametrically polymorphic: their types are not fixed. Type variables are used in the representations of such functions:

```
S.I :: a -> a
```

`a`

is a type variable. Type variables are not capitalized, so they are differentiable from type identifiers (which are always capitalized). By convention type variables have single-character names. The signature above states that `S.I`

takes a value of any type and returns a value of the same type. Some signatures feature multiple type variables:

```
S.K :: a -> b -> a
```

It must be possible to replace all occurrences of `a`

with a concrete type. The same applies for each other type variable. For the function above, the types with which `a`

and `b`

are replaced may be different, but needn't be.

Since all Sanctuary functions are curried (they accept their arguments one at a time), a binary function is represented as a unary function that returns a unary function: `* -> * -> *`

. This aligns neatly with Haskell, which uses curried functions exclusively. In JavaScript, though, we may wish to represent the types of functions with arities less than or greater than one. The general form is `(<input-types>) -> <output-type>`

, where `<input-types>`

comprises zero or more comma–space (`, `

) -separated type representations:

`() -> String`

`(a, b) -> a`

`(a, b, c) -> d`

`Number -> Number`

can thus be seen as shorthand for `(Number) -> Number`

.

Sanctuary embraces types. JavaScript doesn't support algebraic data types, but these can be simulated by providing a group of data constructors that return values with the same set of methods. A value of the Either type, for example, is created via the Left constructor or the Right constructor.

It's necessary to extend Haskell's notation to describe implicit arguments to the *methods* provided by Sanctuary's types. In `x.map(y)`

, for example, the `map`

method takes an implicit argument `x`

in addition to the explicit argument `y`

. The type of the value upon which a method is invoked appears at the beginning of the signature, separated from the arguments and return value by a squiggly arrow (`~>`

). The type of the `fantasy-land/map`

method of the Maybe type is written `Maybe a ~> (a -> b) -> Maybe b`

. One could read this as:

*When the fantasy-land/map method is invoked on a value of type Maybe a (for any type a) with an argument of type a -> b (for any type b), it returns a value of type Maybe b.*

The squiggly arrow is also used when representing non-function properties. `Maybe a ~> Boolean`

, for example, represents a Boolean property of a value of type `Maybe a`

.

Sanctuary supports type classes: constraints on type variables. Whereas `a -> a`

implicitly supports every type, `Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b`

requires that `f`

be a type that satisfies the requirements of the Functor type class. Type-class constraints appear at the beginning of a type signature, separated from the rest of the signature by a fat arrow (`=>`

).

## Type checking

Sanctuary functions are defined via sanctuary-def to provide run-time type checking. This is tremendously useful during development: type errors are reported immediately, avoiding circuitous stack traces (at best) and silent failures due to type coercion (at worst). For example:

```
> S.add (2) (true)
! Invalid value
add :: FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber
^^^^^^^^^^^^
1
1) true :: Boolean
The value at position 1 is not a member of ‘FiniteNumber’.
See https://github.com/sanctuary-js/sanctuary-def/tree/v0.22.0#FiniteNumber for information about the FiniteNumber type.
```

Compare this to the behaviour of Ramda's unchecked equivalent:

```
> R.add (2) (true)
3
```

There is a performance cost to run-time type checking. Type checking is disabled by default if `process.env.NODE_ENV`

is `'production'`

. If this rule is unsuitable for a given program, one may use `create`

to create a Sanctuary module based on a different rule. For example:

```
const S = sanctuary.create ({
checkTypes: localStorage.getItem ('SANCTUARY_CHECK_TYPES') === 'true',
env: sanctuary.env,
});
```

Occasionally one may wish to perform an operation that is not type safe, such as mapping over an object with heterogeneous values. This is possible via selective use of `unchecked`

functions.

## Installation

`npm install sanctuary`

will install Sanctuary for use in Node.js.

To add Sanctuary to a website, add the following `<script>`

element, replacing `X.Y.Z`

with a version number greater than or equal to `2.0.2`

:

```
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/gh/sanctuary-js/sanctuary@X.Y.Z/dist/bundle.js"></script>
```

Optionally, define aliases for various modules:

```
const S = window.sanctuary;
const $ = window.sanctuaryDef;
// ...
```

## API

### Configure

`create :: { checkTypes :: Boolean, env :: Array Type } -> Module`

Takes an options record and returns a Sanctuary module. `checkTypes`

specifies whether to enable type checking. The module's polymorphic functions (such as `I`

) require each value associated with a type variable to be a member of at least one type in the environment.

A well-typed application of a Sanctuary function will produce the same result regardless of whether type checking is enabled. If type checking is enabled, a badly typed application will produce an exception with a descriptive error message.

The following snippet demonstrates defining a custom type and using `create`

to produce a Sanctuary module that is aware of that type:

```
const {create, env} = require ('sanctuary');
const $ = require ('sanctuary-def');
const type = require ('sanctuary-type-identifiers');
// Identity :: a -> Identity a
const Identity = x => {
const identity = Object.create (Identity$prototype);
identity.value = x;
return identity;
};
// identityTypeIdent :: String
const identityTypeIdent = 'my-package/Identity@1';
const Identity$prototype = {
'@@type': identityTypeIdent,
'@@show': function() { return `Identity (${S.show (this.value)})`; },
'fantasy-land/map': function(f) { return Identity (f (this.value)); },
};
// IdentityType :: Type -> Type
const IdentityType = $.UnaryType
('Identity')
('http://example.com/my-package#Identity')
([])
(x => type (x) === identityTypeIdent)
(identity => [identity.value]);
const S = create ({
checkTypes: process.env.NODE_ENV !== 'production',
env: env.concat ([IdentityType ($.Unknown)]),
});
S.map (S.sub (1)) (Identity (43));
// => Identity (42)
```

See also `env`

.

`env :: Array Type`

The Sanctuary module's environment (`(S.create ({checkTypes, env})).env`

is a reference to `env`

). Useful in conjunction with `create`

.

```
> S.env
[Function, Arguments, Array Unknown, Array2 Unknown Unknown, Boolean, Buffer, Date, Descending Unknown, Either Unknown Unknown, Error, Unknown -> Unknown, HtmlElement, Identity Unknown, JsMap Unknown Unknown, JsSet Unknown, Maybe Unknown, Module, Null, Number, Object, Pair Unknown Unknown, RegExp, StrMap Unknown, String, Symbol, Type, TypeClass, Undefined]
```

`unchecked :: Module`

A complete Sanctuary module that performs no type checking. This is useful as it permits operations that Sanctuary's type checking would disallow, such as mapping over an object with heterogeneous values.

See also `create`

.

```
> S.unchecked.map (S.show) ({x: 'foo', y: true, z: 42})
{"x": "\"foo\"", "y": "true", "z": "42"}
```

Opting out of type checking may cause type errors to go unnoticed.

```
> S.unchecked.add (2) ('2')
"22"
```

### Classify

`type :: Any -> { namespace :: Maybe String, name :: String, version :: NonNegativeInteger }`

Returns the result of parsing the type identifier of the given value.

```
> S.type (S.Just (42))
{"name": "Maybe", "namespace": Just ("sanctuary-maybe"), "version": 1}
> S.type ([1, 2, 3])
{"name": "Array", "namespace": Nothing, "version": 0}
```

`is :: Type -> Any -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff the given value is a member of the specified type. See `$.test`

for details.

```
> S.is ($.Array ($.Integer)) ([1, 2, 3])
true
> S.is ($.Array ($.Integer)) ([1, 2, 3.14])
false
```

### Showable

`show :: Any -> String`

Alias of `show`

.

```
> S.show (-0)
"-0"
> S.show (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
"[\"foo\", \"bar\", \"baz\"]"
> S.show ({x: 1, y: 2, z: 3})
"{\"x\": 1, \"y\": 2, \"z\": 3}"
> S.show (S.Left (S.Right (S.Just (S.Nothing))))
"Left (Right (Just (Nothing)))"
```

### Fantasy Land

Sanctuary is compatible with the Fantasy Land specification.

`equals :: Setoid a => a -> a -> Boolean`

Curried version of `Z.equals`

that requires two arguments of the same type.

To compare values of different types first use `create`

to create a Sanctuary module with type checking disabled, then use that module's `equals`

function.

```
> S.equals (0) (-0)
true
> S.equals (NaN) (NaN)
true
> S.equals (S.Just ([1, 2, 3])) (S.Just ([1, 2, 3]))
true
> S.equals (S.Just ([1, 2, 3])) (S.Just ([1, 2, 4]))
false
```

`lt :: Ord a => a -> a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff the *second* argument is less than the first according to `Z.lt`

.

```
> S.filter (S.lt (3)) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[1, 2]
```

`lte :: Ord a => a -> a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff the *second* argument is less than or equal to the first according to `Z.lte`

.

```
> S.filter (S.lte (3)) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[1, 2, 3]
```

`gt :: Ord a => a -> a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff the *second* argument is greater than the first according to `Z.gt`

.

```
> S.filter (S.gt (3)) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[4, 5]
```

`gte :: Ord a => a -> a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff the *second* argument is greater than or equal to the first according to `Z.gte`

.

```
> S.filter (S.gte (3)) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[3, 4, 5]
```

`min :: Ord a => a -> a -> a`

Returns the smaller of its two arguments (according to `Z.lte`

).

See also `max`

.

```
> S.min (10) (2)
2
> S.min (new Date ('1999-12-31')) (new Date ('2000-01-01'))
new Date ("1999-12-31T00:00:00.000Z")
> S.min ('10') ('2')
"10"
```

`max :: Ord a => a -> a -> a`

Returns the larger of its two arguments (according to `Z.lte`

).

See also `min`

.

```
> S.max (10) (2)
10
> S.max (new Date ('1999-12-31')) (new Date ('2000-01-01'))
new Date ("2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z")
> S.max ('10') ('2')
"2"
```

`clamp :: Ord a => a -> a -> a -> a`

Takes a lower bound, an upper bound, and a value of the same type. Returns the value if it is within the bounds; the nearer bound otherwise.

```
> S.clamp (0) (100) (42)
42
> S.clamp (0) (100) (-1)
0
> S.clamp ('A') ('Z') ('~')
"Z"
```

`id :: Category c => TypeRep c -> c`

```
> S.id (Function) (42)
42
```

`concat :: Semigroup a => a -> a -> a`

Curried version of `Z.concat`

.

```
> S.concat ('abc') ('def')
"abcdef"
> S.concat ([1, 2, 3]) ([4, 5, 6])
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
> S.concat ({x: 1, y: 2}) ({y: 3, z: 4})
{"x": 1, "y": 3, "z": 4}
> S.concat (S.Just ([1, 2, 3])) (S.Just ([4, 5, 6]))
Just ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6])
> S.concat (Sum (18)) (Sum (24))
Sum (42)
```

`empty :: Monoid a => TypeRep a -> a`

```
> S.empty (String)
""
> S.empty (Array)
[]
> S.empty (Object)
{}
> S.empty (Sum)
Sum (0)
```

`invert :: Group g => g -> g`

Type-safe version of `Z.invert`

.

```
> S.invert (Sum (5))
Sum (-5)
```

`filter :: Filterable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> f a`

Curried version of `Z.filter`

. Discards every element that does not satisfy the predicate.

See also `reject`

.

```
> S.filter (S.odd) ([1, 2, 3])
[1, 3]
> S.filter (S.odd) ({x: 1, y: 2, z: 3})
{"x": 1, "z": 3}
> S.filter (S.odd) (S.Nothing)
Nothing
> S.filter (S.odd) (S.Just (0))
Nothing
> S.filter (S.odd) (S.Just (1))
Just (1)
```

`reject :: Filterable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> f a`

Curried version of `Z.reject`

. Discards every element that satisfies the predicate.

See also `filter`

.

```
> S.reject (S.odd) ([1, 2, 3])
[2]
> S.reject (S.odd) ({x: 1, y: 2, z: 3})
{"y": 2}
> S.reject (S.odd) (S.Nothing)
Nothing
> S.reject (S.odd) (S.Just (0))
Just (0)
> S.reject (S.odd) (S.Just (1))
Nothing
```

`map :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b`

Curried version of `Z.map`

.

```
> S.map (Math.sqrt) ([1, 4, 9])
[1, 2, 3]
> S.map (Math.sqrt) ({x: 1, y: 4, z: 9})
{"x": 1, "y": 2, "z": 3}
> S.map (Math.sqrt) (S.Just (9))
Just (3)
> S.map (Math.sqrt) (S.Right (9))
Right (3)
> S.map (Math.sqrt) (S.Pair (99980001) (99980001))
Pair (99980001) (9999)
```

Replacing `Functor f => f`

with `Function x`

produces the B combinator from combinatory logic (i.e. `compose`

):

```
Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
(a -> b) -> Function x a -> Function x b
(a -> c) -> Function x a -> Function x c
(b -> c) -> Function x b -> Function x c
(b -> c) -> Function a b -> Function a c
(b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> (a -> c)
```

```
> S.map (Math.sqrt) (S.add (1)) (99)
10
```

`flip :: Functor f => f (a -> b) -> a -> f b`

Curried version of `Z.flip`

. Maps over the given functions, applying each to the given value.

Replacing `Functor f => f`

with `Function x`

produces the C combinator from combinatory logic:

```
Functor f => f (a -> b) -> a -> f b
Function x (a -> b) -> a -> Function x b
Function x (a -> c) -> a -> Function x c
Function x (b -> c) -> b -> Function x c
Function a (b -> c) -> b -> Function a c
(a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c
```

```
> S.flip (S.concat) ('!') ('foo')
"foo!"
> S.flip ([Math.floor, Math.ceil]) (1.5)
[1, 2]
> S.flip ({floor: Math.floor, ceil: Math.ceil}) (1.5)
{"ceil": 2, "floor": 1}
> S.flip (Cons (Math.floor) (Cons (Math.ceil) (Nil))) (1.5)
Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Nil))
```

`bimap :: Bifunctor f => (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> f a c -> f b d`

Curried version of `Z.bimap`

.

```
> S.bimap (S.toUpper) (Math.sqrt) (S.Pair ('foo') (64))
Pair ("FOO") (8)
> S.bimap (S.toUpper) (Math.sqrt) (S.Left ('foo'))
Left ("FOO")
> S.bimap (S.toUpper) (Math.sqrt) (S.Right (64))
Right (8)
```

`mapLeft :: Bifunctor f => (a -> b) -> f a c -> f b c`

Curried version of `Z.mapLeft`

. Maps the given function over the left side of a Bifunctor.

```
> S.mapLeft (S.toUpper) (S.Pair ('foo') (64))
Pair ("FOO") (64)
> S.mapLeft (S.toUpper) (S.Left ('foo'))
Left ("FOO")
> S.mapLeft (S.toUpper) (S.Right (64))
Right (64)
```

`promap :: Profunctor p => (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> p b c -> p a d`

Curried version of `Z.promap`

.

```
> S.promap (Math.abs) (S.add (1)) (Math.sqrt) (-100)
11
```

`alt :: Alt f => f a -> f a -> f a`

Curried version of `Z.alt`

with arguments flipped to facilitate partial application.

```
> S.alt (S.Just ('default')) (S.Nothing)
Just ("default")
> S.alt (S.Just ('default')) (S.Just ('hello'))
Just ("hello")
> S.alt (S.Right (0)) (S.Left ('X'))
Right (0)
> S.alt (S.Right (0)) (S.Right (1))
Right (1)
```

`zero :: Plus f => TypeRep f -> f a`

```
> S.zero (Array)
[]
> S.zero (Object)
{}
> S.zero (S.Maybe)
Nothing
```

`reduce :: Foldable f => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> f a -> b`

Takes a curried binary function, an initial value, and a Foldable, and applies the function to the initial value and the Foldable's first value, then applies the function to the result of the previous application and the Foldable's second value. Repeats this process until each of the Foldable's values has been used. Returns the initial value if the Foldable is empty; the result of the final application otherwise.

See also `reduce_`

.

```
> S.reduce (S.add) (0) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
15
> S.reduce (xs => x => S.prepend (x) (xs)) ([]) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
[5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
```

`reduce_ :: Foldable f => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> f a -> b`

Variant of `reduce`

that takes a reducing function with arguments flipped.

```
> S.reduce_ (S.append) ([]) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
[1, 2, 3]
> S.reduce_ (S.prepend) ([]) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
[3, 2, 1]
```

`traverse :: (Applicative f, Traversable t) => TypeRep f -> (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b)`

Curried version of `Z.traverse`

.

```
> S.traverse (Array) (S.words) (S.Just ('foo bar baz'))
[Just ("foo"), Just ("bar"), Just ("baz")]
> S.traverse (Array) (S.words) (S.Nothing)
[Nothing]
> S.traverse (S.Maybe) (S.parseInt (16)) (['A', 'B', 'C'])
Just ([10, 11, 12])
> S.traverse (S.Maybe) (S.parseInt (16)) (['A', 'B', 'C', 'X'])
Nothing
> S.traverse (S.Maybe) (S.parseInt (16)) ({a: 'A', b: 'B', c: 'C'})
Just ({"a": 10, "b": 11, "c": 12})
> S.traverse (S.Maybe) (S.parseInt (16)) ({a: 'A', b: 'B', c: 'C', x: 'X'})
Nothing
```

`sequence :: (Applicative f, Traversable t) => TypeRep f -> t (f a) -> f (t a)`

Curried version of `Z.sequence`

. Inverts the given `t (f a)`

to produce an `f (t a)`

.

```
> S.sequence (Array) (S.Just ([1, 2, 3]))
[Just (1), Just (2), Just (3)]
> S.sequence (S.Maybe) ([S.Just (1), S.Just (2), S.Just (3)])
Just ([1, 2, 3])
> S.sequence (S.Maybe) ([S.Just (1), S.Just (2), S.Nothing])
Nothing
> S.sequence (S.Maybe) ({a: S.Just (1), b: S.Just (2), c: S.Just (3)})
Just ({"a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3})
> S.sequence (S.Maybe) ({a: S.Just (1), b: S.Just (2), c: S.Nothing})
Nothing
```

`ap :: Apply f => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b`

Curried version of `Z.ap`

.

```
> S.ap ([Math.sqrt, x => x * x]) ([1, 4, 9, 16, 25])
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 16, 81, 256, 625]
> S.ap ({x: Math.sqrt, y: S.add (1), z: S.sub (1)}) ({w: 4, x: 4, y: 4})
{"x": 2, "y": 5}
> S.ap (S.Just (Math.sqrt)) (S.Just (64))
Just (8)
```

Replacing `Apply f => f`

with `Function x`

produces the S combinator from combinatory logic:

```
Apply f => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
Function x (a -> b) -> Function x a -> Function x b
Function x (a -> c) -> Function x a -> Function x c
Function x (b -> c) -> Function x b -> Function x c
Function a (b -> c) -> Function a b -> Function a c
(a -> b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> (a -> c)
```

```
> S.ap (s => n => s.slice (0, n)) (s => Math.ceil (s.length / 2)) ('Haskell')
"Hask"
```

`lift2 :: Apply f => (a -> b -> c) -> f a -> f b -> f c`

Promotes a curried binary function to a function that operates on two Applys.

```
> S.lift2 (S.add) (S.Just (2)) (S.Just (3))
Just (5)
> S.lift2 (S.add) (S.Just (2)) (S.Nothing)
Nothing
> S.lift2 (S.and) (S.Just (true)) (S.Just (true))
Just (true)
> S.lift2 (S.and) (S.Just (true)) (S.Just (false))
Just (false)
```

`lift3 :: Apply f => (a -> b -> c -> d) -> f a -> f b -> f c -> f d`

Promotes a curried ternary function to a function that operates on three Applys.

```
> S.lift3 (S.reduce) (S.Just (S.add)) (S.Just (0)) (S.Just ([1, 2, 3]))
Just (6)
> S.lift3 (S.reduce) (S.Just (S.add)) (S.Just (0)) (S.Nothing)
Nothing
```

`apFirst :: Apply f => f a -> f b -> f a`

Curried version of `Z.apFirst`

. Combines two effectful actions, keeping only the result of the first. Equivalent to Haskell's `(<*)`

function.

See also `apSecond`

.

```
> S.apFirst ([1, 2]) ([3, 4])
[1, 1, 2, 2]
> S.apFirst (S.Just (1)) (S.Just (2))
Just (1)
```

`apSecond :: Apply f => f a -> f b -> f b`

Curried version of `Z.apSecond`

. Combines two effectful actions, keeping only the result of the second. Equivalent to Haskell's `(*>)`

function.

See also `apFirst`

.

```
> S.apSecond ([1, 2]) ([3, 4])
[3, 4, 3, 4]
> S.apSecond (S.Just (1)) (S.Just (2))
Just (2)
```

`of :: Applicative f => TypeRep f -> a -> f a`

Curried version of `Z.of`

.

```
> S.of (Array) (42)
[42]
> S.of (Function) (42) (null)
42
> S.of (S.Maybe) (42)
Just (42)
> S.of (S.Either) (42)
Right (42)
```

`chain :: Chain m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b`

Curried version of `Z.chain`

.

```
> S.chain (x => [x, x]) ([1, 2, 3])
[1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3]
> S.chain (n => s => s.slice (0, n)) (s => Math.ceil (s.length / 2)) ('slice')
"sli"
> S.chain (S.parseInt (10)) (S.Just ('123'))
Just (123)
> S.chain (S.parseInt (10)) (S.Just ('XXX'))
Nothing
```

`join :: Chain m => m (m a) -> m a`

Type-safe version of `Z.join`

. Removes one level of nesting from a nested monadic structure.

```
> S.join ([[1], [2], [3]])
[1, 2, 3]
> S.join ([[[1, 2, 3]]])
[[1, 2, 3]]
> S.join (S.Just (S.Just (1)))
Just (1)
> S.join (S.Pair ('foo') (S.Pair ('bar') ('baz')))
Pair ("foobar") ("baz")
```

Replacing `Chain m => m`

with `Function x`

produces the W combinator from combinatory logic:

```
Chain m => m (m a) -> m a
Function x (Function x a) -> Function x a
(x -> x -> a) -> (x -> a)
```

```
> S.join (S.concat) ('abc')
"abcabc"
```

`chainRec :: ChainRec m => TypeRep m -> (a -> m (Either a b)) -> a -> m b`

Performs a `chain`

-like computation with constant stack usage. Similar to `Z.chainRec`

, but curried and more convenient due to the use of the Either type to indicate completion (via a Right).

```
> S.chainRec (Array) (s => s.length === 2 ? S.map (S.Right) ([s + '!', s + '?']) : S.map (S.Left) ([s + 'o', s + 'n'])) ('')
["oo!", "oo?", "on!", "on?", "no!", "no?", "nn!", "nn?"]
```

`extend :: Extend w => (w a -> b) -> w a -> w b`

Curried version of `Z.extend`

.

```
> S.extend (S.joinWith ('')) (['x', 'y', 'z'])
["xyz", "yz", "z"]
> S.extend (f => f ([3, 4])) (S.reverse) ([1, 2])
[4, 3, 2, 1]
```

`duplicate :: Extend w => w a -> w (w a)`

Type-safe version of `Z.duplicate`

. Adds one level of nesting to a comonadic structure.

```
> S.duplicate (S.Just (1))
Just (Just (1))
> S.duplicate ([1])
[[1]]
> S.duplicate ([1, 2, 3])
[[1, 2, 3], [2, 3], [3]]
> S.duplicate (S.reverse) ([1, 2]) ([3, 4])
[4, 3, 2, 1]
```

`extract :: Comonad w => w a -> a`

Type-safe version of `Z.extract`

.

```
> S.extract (S.Pair ('foo') ('bar'))
"bar"
```

`contramap :: Contravariant f => (b -> a) -> f a -> f b`

Type-safe version of `Z.contramap`

.

```
> S.contramap (s => s.length) (Math.sqrt) ('Sanctuary')
3
```

### Combinator

`I :: a -> a`

The I combinator. Returns its argument. Equivalent to Haskell's `id`

function.

```
> S.I ('foo')
"foo"
```

`K :: a -> b -> a`

The K combinator. Takes two values and returns the first. Equivalent to Haskell's `const`

function.

```
> S.K ('foo') ('bar')
"foo"
> S.map (S.K (42)) (S.range (0) (5))
[42, 42, 42, 42, 42]
```

`T :: a -> (a -> b) -> b`

The T (thrush) combinator. Takes a value and a function, and returns the result of applying the function to the value. Equivalent to Haskell's `(&)`

function.

```
> S.T (42) (S.add (1))
43
> S.map (S.T (100)) ([S.add (1), Math.sqrt])
[101, 10]
```

### Function

`curry2 :: ((a, b) -> c) -> a -> b -> c`

Curries the given binary function.

```
> S.map (S.curry2 (Math.pow) (10)) ([1, 2, 3])
[10, 100, 1000]
```

`curry3 :: ((a, b, c) -> d) -> a -> b -> c -> d`

Curries the given ternary function.

```
> const replaceString = S.curry3 ((what, replacement, string) => string.replace (what, replacement))
undefined
> replaceString ('banana') ('orange') ('banana icecream')
"orange icecream"
```

`curry4 :: ((a, b, c, d) -> e) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> e`

Curries the given quaternary function.

```
> const createRect = S.curry4 ((x, y, width, height) => ({x, y, width, height}))
undefined
> createRect (0) (0) (10) (10)
{"height": 10, "width": 10, "x": 0, "y": 0}
```

`curry5 :: ((a, b, c, d, e) -> f) -> a -> b -> c -> d -> e -> f`

Curries the given quinary function.

```
> const toUrl = S.curry5 ((protocol, creds, hostname, port, pathname) => protocol + '//' + S.maybe ('') (S.flip (S.concat) ('@')) (creds) + hostname + S.maybe ('') (S.concat (':')) (port) + pathname)
undefined
> toUrl ('https:') (S.Nothing) ('example.com') (S.Just ('443')) ('/foo/bar')
"https://example.com:443/foo/bar"
```

### Composition

`compose :: Semigroupoid s => s b c -> s a b -> s a c`

Curried version of `Z.compose`

.

When specialized to Function, `compose`

composes two unary functions, from right to left (this is the B combinator from combinatory logic).

The generalized type signature indicates that `compose`

is compatible with any Semigroupoid.

See also `pipe`

.

```
> S.compose (Math.sqrt) (S.add (1)) (99)
10
```

`pipe :: Foldable f => f (Any -> Any) -> a -> b`

Takes a sequence of functions assumed to be unary and a value of any type, and returns the result of applying the sequence of transformations to the initial value.

In general terms, `pipe`

performs left-to-right composition of a sequence of functions. `pipe ([f, g, h]) (x)`

is equivalent to `h (g (f (x)))`

.

```
> S.pipe ([S.add (1), Math.sqrt, S.sub (1)]) (99)
9
```

`pipeK :: (Foldable f, Chain m) => f (Any -> m Any) -> m a -> m b`

Takes a sequence of functions assumed to be unary that return values with a Chain, and a value of that Chain, and returns the result of applying the sequence of transformations to the initial value.

In general terms, `pipeK`

performs left-to-right Kleisli composition of an sequence of functions. `pipeK ([f, g, h]) (x)`

is equivalent to `chain (h) (chain (g) (chain (f) (x)))`

.

```
> S.pipeK ([S.tail, S.tail, S.head]) (S.Just ([1, 2, 3, 4]))
Just (3)
```

`on :: (b -> b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> a -> c`

Takes a binary function `f`

, a unary function `g`

, and two values `x`

and `y`

. Returns `f (g (x)) (g (y))`

.

This is the P combinator from combinatory logic.

```
> S.on (S.concat) (S.reverse) ([1, 2, 3]) ([4, 5, 6])
[3, 2, 1, 6, 5, 4]
```

### Pair

Pair is the canonical product type: a value of type `Pair a b`

always contains exactly two values: one of type `a`

; one of type `b`

.

The implementation is provided by sanctuary-pair.

`Pair :: a -> b -> Pair a b`

Pair's sole data constructor. Additionally, it serves as the Pair type representative.

```
> S.Pair ('foo') (42)
Pair ("foo") (42)
```

`pair :: (a -> b -> c) -> Pair a b -> c`

Case analysis for the `Pair a b`

type.

```
> S.pair (S.concat) (S.Pair ('foo') ('bar'))
"foobar"
```

`fst :: Pair a b -> a`

`fst (Pair (x) (y))`

is equivalent to `x`

.

```
> S.fst (S.Pair ('foo') (42))
"foo"
```

`snd :: Pair a b -> b`

`snd (Pair (x) (y))`

is equivalent to `y`

.

```
> S.snd (S.Pair ('foo') (42))
42
```

`swap :: Pair a b -> Pair b a`

`swap (Pair (x) (y))`

is equivalent to `Pair (y) (x)`

.

```
> S.swap (S.Pair ('foo') (42))
Pair (42) ("foo")
```

### Maybe

The Maybe type represents optional values: a value of type `Maybe a`

is either Nothing (the empty value) or a Just whose value is of type `a`

.

The implementation is provided by sanctuary-maybe.

`Maybe :: TypeRep Maybe`

Maybe type representative.

`Nothing :: Maybe a`

The empty value of type `Maybe a`

.

```
> S.Nothing
Nothing
```

`Just :: a -> Maybe a`

Constructs a value of type `Maybe a`

from a value of type `a`

.

```
> S.Just (42)
Just (42)
```

`isNothing :: Maybe a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given Maybe is Nothing; `false`

if it is a Just.

```
> S.isNothing (S.Nothing)
true
> S.isNothing (S.Just (42))
false
```

`isJust :: Maybe a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given Maybe is a Just; `false`

if it is Nothing.

```
> S.isJust (S.Just (42))
true
> S.isJust (S.Nothing)
false
```

`maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b`

Takes a value of any type, a function, and a Maybe. If the Maybe is a Just, the return value is the result of applying the function to the Just's value. Otherwise, the first argument is returned.

See also `maybe_`

and `fromMaybe`

.

```
> S.maybe (0) (S.prop ('length')) (S.Just ('refuge'))
6
> S.maybe (0) (S.prop ('length')) (S.Nothing)
0
```

`maybe_ :: (() -> b) -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b`

Variant of `maybe`

that takes a thunk so the default value is only computed if required.

```
> function fib(n) { return n <= 1 ? n : fib (n - 2) + fib (n - 1); }
undefined
> S.maybe_ (() => fib (30)) (Math.sqrt) (S.Just (1000000))
1000
> S.maybe_ (() => fib (30)) (Math.sqrt) (S.Nothing)
832040
```

`fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a`

Takes a default value and a Maybe, and returns the Maybe's value if the Maybe is a Just; the default value otherwise.

See also `maybe`

, `fromMaybe_`

, and `maybeToNullable`

.

```
> S.fromMaybe (0) (S.Just (42))
42
> S.fromMaybe (0) (S.Nothing)
0
```

`fromMaybe_ :: (() -> a) -> Maybe a -> a`

Variant of `fromMaybe`

that takes a thunk so the default value is only computed if required.

```
> function fib(n) { return n <= 1 ? n : fib (n - 2) + fib (n - 1); }
undefined
> S.fromMaybe_ (() => fib (30)) (S.Just (1000000))
1000000
> S.fromMaybe_ (() => fib (30)) (S.Nothing)
832040
```

`justs :: (Filterable f, Functor f) => f (Maybe a) -> f a`

Discards each element that is Nothing, and unwraps each element that is a Just. Related to Haskell's `catMaybes`

function.

```
> S.justs ([S.Just ('foo'), S.Nothing, S.Just ('baz')])
["foo", "baz"]
```

`mapMaybe :: (Filterable f, Functor f) => (a -> Maybe b) -> f a -> f b`

Takes a function and a structure, applies the function to each element of the structure, and returns the "successful" results. If the result of applying the function to an element is Nothing, the result is discarded; if the result is a Just, the Just's value is included.

```
> S.mapMaybe (S.head) ([[], [1, 2, 3], [], [4, 5, 6], []])
[1, 4]
> S.mapMaybe (S.head) ({x: [1, 2, 3], y: [], z: [4, 5, 6]})
{"x": 1, "z": 4}
```

`maybeToNullable :: Maybe a -> Nullable a`

Returns the given Maybe's value if the Maybe is a Just; `null`

otherwise. Nullable is defined in sanctuary-def.

See also `fromMaybe`

.

```
> S.maybeToNullable (S.Just (42))
42
> S.maybeToNullable (S.Nothing)
null
```

`maybeToEither :: a -> Maybe b -> Either a b`

Converts a Maybe to an Either. Nothing becomes a Left (containing the first argument); a Just becomes a Right.

See also `eitherToMaybe`

.

```
> S.maybeToEither ('Expecting an integer') (S.parseInt (10) ('xyz'))
Left ("Expecting an integer")
> S.maybeToEither ('Expecting an integer') (S.parseInt (10) ('42'))
Right (42)
```

### Either

The Either type represents values with two possibilities: a value of type `Either a b`

is either a Left whose value is of type `a`

or a Right whose value is of type `b`

.

The implementation is provided by sanctuary-either.

`Either :: TypeRep Either`

Either type representative.

`Left :: a -> Either a b`

Constructs a value of type `Either a b`

from a value of type `a`

.

```
> S.Left ('Cannot divide by zero')
Left ("Cannot divide by zero")
```

`Right :: b -> Either a b`

Constructs a value of type `Either a b`

from a value of type `b`

.

```
> S.Right (42)
Right (42)
```

`isLeft :: Either a b -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given Either is a Left; `false`

if it is a Right.

```
> S.isLeft (S.Left ('Cannot divide by zero'))
true
> S.isLeft (S.Right (42))
false
```

`isRight :: Either a b -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given Either is a Right; `false`

if it is a Left.

```
> S.isRight (S.Right (42))
true
> S.isRight (S.Left ('Cannot divide by zero'))
false
```

`either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c`

Takes two functions and an Either, and returns the result of applying the first function to the Left's value, if the Either is a Left, or the result of applying the second function to the Right's value, if the Either is a Right.

See also `fromLeft`

and `fromRight`

.

```
> S.either (S.toUpper) (S.show) (S.Left ('Cannot divide by zero'))
"CANNOT DIVIDE BY ZERO"
> S.either (S.toUpper) (S.show) (S.Right (42))
"42"
```

`fromLeft :: a -> Either a b -> a`

Takes a default value and an Either, and returns the Left value if the Either is a Left; the default value otherwise.

See also `either`

and `fromRight`

.

```
> S.fromLeft ('abc') (S.Left ('xyz'))
"xyz"
> S.fromLeft ('abc') (S.Right (123))
"abc"
```

`fromRight :: b -> Either a b -> b`

Takes a default value and an Either, and returns the Right value if the Either is a Right; the default value otherwise.

```
> S.fromRight (123) (S.Right (789))
789
> S.fromRight (123) (S.Left ('abc'))
123
```

`fromEither :: b -> Either a b -> b`

Takes a default value and an Either, and returns the Right value if the Either is a Right; the default value otherwise.

The behaviour of `fromEither`

is likely to change in a future release. Please use `fromRight`

instead.

```
> S.fromEither (0) (S.Right (42))
42
> S.fromEither (0) (S.Left (42))
0
```

`lefts :: (Filterable f, Functor f) => f (Either a b) -> f a`

Discards each element that is a Right, and unwraps each element that is a Left.

See also `rights`

.

```
> S.lefts ([S.Right (20), S.Left ('foo'), S.Right (10), S.Left ('bar')])
["foo", "bar"]
```

`rights :: (Filterable f, Functor f) => f (Either a b) -> f b`

Discards each element that is a Left, and unwraps each element that is a Right.

See also `lefts`

.

```
> S.rights ([S.Right (20), S.Left ('foo'), S.Right (10), S.Left ('bar')])
[20, 10]
```

`tagBy :: (a -> Boolean) -> a -> Either a a`

Takes a predicate and a value, and returns a Right of the value if it satisfies the predicate; a Left of the value otherwise.

```
> S.tagBy (S.odd) (0)
Left (0)
> S.tagBy (S.odd) (1)
Right (1)
```

`encase :: Throwing e a b -> a -> Either e b`

Takes a function that may throw and returns a pure function.

```
> S.encase (JSON.parse) ('["foo","bar","baz"]')
Right (["foo", "bar", "baz"])
> S.encase (JSON.parse) ('[')
Left (new SyntaxError ("Unexpected end of JSON input"))
```

`eitherToMaybe :: Either a b -> Maybe b`

Converts an Either to a Maybe. A Left becomes Nothing; a Right becomes a Just.

See also `maybeToEither`

.

```
> S.eitherToMaybe (S.Left ('Cannot divide by zero'))
Nothing
> S.eitherToMaybe (S.Right (42))
Just (42)
```

### Logic

`and :: Boolean -> Boolean -> Boolean`

Boolean "and".

```
> S.and (false) (false)
false
> S.and (false) (true)
false
> S.and (true) (false)
false
> S.and (true) (true)
true
```

`or :: Boolean -> Boolean -> Boolean`

Boolean "or".

```
> S.or (false) (false)
false
> S.or (false) (true)
true
> S.or (true) (false)
true
> S.or (true) (true)
true
```

`not :: Boolean -> Boolean`

Boolean "not".

See also `complement`

.

```
> S.not (false)
true
> S.not (true)
false
```

`complement :: (a -> Boolean) -> a -> Boolean`

Takes a unary predicate and a value of any type, and returns the logical negation of applying the predicate to the value.

See also `not`

.

```
> Number.isInteger (42)
true
> S.complement (Number.isInteger) (42)
false
```

`boolean :: a -> a -> Boolean -> a`

Case analysis for the `Boolean`

type. `boolean (x) (y) (b)`

evaluates to `x`

if `b`

is `false`

; to `y`

if `b`

is `true`

.

```
> S.boolean ('no') ('yes') (false)
"no"
> S.boolean ('no') ('yes') (true)
"yes"
```

`ifElse :: (a -> Boolean) -> (a -> b) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b`

Takes a unary predicate, a unary "if" function, a unary "else" function, and a value of any type, and returns the result of applying the "if" function to the value if the value satisfies the predicate; the result of applying the "else" function to the value otherwise.

```
> S.ifElse (x => x < 0) (Math.abs) (Math.sqrt) (-1)
1
> S.ifElse (x => x < 0) (Math.abs) (Math.sqrt) (16)
4
```

`when :: (a -> Boolean) -> (a -> a) -> a -> a`

Takes a unary predicate, a unary function, and a value of any type, and returns the result of applying the function to the value if the value satisfies the predicate; the value otherwise.

```
> S.when (x => x >= 0) (Math.sqrt) (16)
4
> S.when (x => x >= 0) (Math.sqrt) (-1)
-1
```

`unless :: (a -> Boolean) -> (a -> a) -> a -> a`

Takes a unary predicate, a unary function, and a value of any type, and returns the result of applying the function to the value if the value does not satisfy the predicate; the value otherwise.

```
> S.unless (x => x < 0) (Math.sqrt) (16)
4
> S.unless (x => x < 0) (Math.sqrt) (-1)
-1
```

### Array

`array :: b -> (a -> Array a -> b) -> Array a -> b`

Case analysis for the `Array a`

type.

```
> S.array (S.Nothing) (head => tail => S.Just (head)) ([])
Nothing
> S.array (S.Nothing) (head => tail => S.Just (head)) ([1, 2, 3])
Just (1)
> S.array (S.Nothing) (head => tail => S.Just (tail)) ([])
Nothing
> S.array (S.Nothing) (head => tail => S.Just (tail)) ([1, 2, 3])
Just ([2, 3])
```

`head :: Foldable f => f a -> Maybe a`

Returns Just the first element of the given structure if the structure contains at least one element; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.head ([1, 2, 3])
Just (1)
> S.head ([])
Nothing
> S.head (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
Just (1)
> S.head (Nil)
Nothing
```

`last :: Foldable f => f a -> Maybe a`

Returns Just the last element of the given structure if the structure contains at least one element; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.last ([1, 2, 3])
Just (3)
> S.last ([])
Nothing
> S.last (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
Just (3)
> S.last (Nil)
Nothing
```

`tail :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just all but the first of the given structure's elements if the structure contains at least one element; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.tail ([1, 2, 3])
Just ([2, 3])
> S.tail ([])
Nothing
> S.tail (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
Just (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil)))
> S.tail (Nil)
Nothing
```

`init :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just all but the last of the given structure's elements if the structure contains at least one element; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.init ([1, 2, 3])
Just ([1, 2])
> S.init ([])
Nothing
> S.init (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
Just (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Nil)))
> S.init (Nil)
Nothing
```

`take :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => Integer -> f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just the first N elements of the given structure if N is non-negative and less than or equal to the size of the structure; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.take (0) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just ([])
> S.take (1) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo"])
> S.take (2) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo", "bar"])
> S.take (3) (['foo', 'bar'])
Nothing
> S.take (3) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Cons (4) (Cons (5) (Nil))))))
Just (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
```

`drop :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => Integer -> f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just all but the first N elements of the given structure if N is non-negative and less than or equal to the size of the structure; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.drop (0) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo", "bar"])
> S.drop (1) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["bar"])
> S.drop (2) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just ([])
> S.drop (3) (['foo', 'bar'])
Nothing
> S.drop (3) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Cons (4) (Cons (5) (Nil))))))
Just (Cons (4) (Cons (5) (Nil)))
```

`takeLast :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => Integer -> f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just the last N elements of the given structure if N is non-negative and less than or equal to the size of the structure; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.takeLast (0) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just ([])
> S.takeLast (1) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["bar"])
> S.takeLast (2) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo", "bar"])
> S.takeLast (3) (['foo', 'bar'])
Nothing
> S.takeLast (3) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Cons (4) (Nil)))))
Just (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Cons (4) (Nil))))
```

`dropLast :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => Integer -> f a -> Maybe (f a)`

Returns Just all but the last N elements of the given structure if N is non-negative and less than or equal to the size of the structure; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.dropLast (0) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo", "bar"])
> S.dropLast (1) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just (["foo"])
> S.dropLast (2) (['foo', 'bar'])
Just ([])
> S.dropLast (3) (['foo', 'bar'])
Nothing
> S.dropLast (3) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Cons (4) (Nil)))))
Just (Cons (1) (Nil))
```

`takeWhile :: (a -> Boolean) -> Array a -> Array a`

Discards the first element that does not satisfy the predicate, and all subsequent elements.

See also `dropWhile`

.

```
> S.takeWhile (S.odd) ([3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 3, 5, 4])
[3, 3, 3, 7]
> S.takeWhile (S.even) ([3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 3, 5, 4])
[]
```

`dropWhile :: (a -> Boolean) -> Array a -> Array a`

Retains the first element that does not satisfy the predicate, and all subsequent elements.

See also `takeWhile`

.

```
> S.dropWhile (S.odd) ([3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 3, 5, 4])
[6, 3, 5, 4]
> S.dropWhile (S.even) ([3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 3, 5, 4])
[3, 3, 3, 7, 6, 3, 5, 4]
```

`size :: Foldable f => f a -> NonNegativeInteger`

Returns the number of elements of the given structure.

```
> S.size ([])
0
> S.size (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
3
> S.size (Nil)
0
> S.size (Cons ('foo') (Cons ('bar') (Cons ('baz') (Nil))))
3
> S.size (S.Nothing)
0
> S.size (S.Just ('quux'))
1
> S.size (S.Pair ('ignored!') ('counted!'))
1
```

`all :: Foldable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff all the elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.

```
> S.all (S.odd) ([])
true
> S.all (S.odd) ([1, 3, 5])
true
> S.all (S.odd) ([1, 2, 3])
false
```

`any :: Foldable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff any element of the structure satisfies the predicate.

```
> S.any (S.odd) ([])
false
> S.any (S.odd) ([2, 4, 6])
false
> S.any (S.odd) ([1, 2, 3])
true
```

`none :: Foldable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

iff none of the elements of the structure satisfies the predicate.

Properties:

`forall p :: a -> Boolean, xs :: Foldable f => f a. S.none (p) (xs) = S.not (S.any (p) (xs))`

`forall p :: a -> Boolean, xs :: Foldable f => f a. S.none (p) (xs) = S.all (S.complement (p)) (xs)`

```
> S.none (S.odd) ([])
true
> S.none (S.odd) ([2, 4, 6])
true
> S.none (S.odd) ([1, 2, 3])
false
```

`append :: (Applicative f, Semigroup (f a)) => a -> f a -> f a`

Returns the result of appending the first argument to the second.

See also `prepend`

.

```
> S.append (3) ([1, 2])
[1, 2, 3]
> S.append (3) (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Nil)))
Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil)))
> S.append ([1]) (S.Nothing)
Just ([1])
> S.append ([3]) (S.Just ([1, 2]))
Just ([1, 2, 3])
```

`prepend :: (Applicative f, Semigroup (f a)) => a -> f a -> f a`

Returns the result of prepending the first argument to the second.

See also `append`

.

```
> S.prepend (1) ([2, 3])
[1, 2, 3]
> S.prepend (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil)))
Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil)))
> S.prepend ([1]) (S.Nothing)
Just ([1])
> S.prepend ([1]) (S.Just ([2, 3]))
Just ([1, 2, 3])
```

`joinWith :: String -> Array String -> String`

Joins the strings of the second argument separated by the first argument.

Properties:

`forall s :: String, t :: String. S.joinWith (s) (S.splitOn (s) (t)) = t`

See also `splitOn`

and `intercalate`

.

```
> S.joinWith (':') (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
"foo:bar:baz"
```

`elem :: (Setoid a, Foldable f) => a -> f a -> Boolean`

Takes a value and a structure and returns `true`

iff the value is an element of the structure.

See also `find`

.

```
> S.elem ('c') (['a', 'b', 'c'])
true
> S.elem ('x') (['a', 'b', 'c'])
false
> S.elem (3) ({x: 1, y: 2, z: 3})
true
> S.elem (8) ({x: 1, y: 2, z: 3})
false
> S.elem (0) (S.Just (0))
true
> S.elem (0) (S.Just (1))
false
> S.elem (0) (S.Nothing)
false
```

`find :: Foldable f => (a -> Boolean) -> f a -> Maybe a`

Takes a predicate and a structure and returns Just the leftmost element of the structure that satisfies the predicate; Nothing if there is no such element.

See also `elem`

.

```
> S.find (S.lt (0)) ([1, -2, 3, -4, 5])
Just (-2)
> S.find (S.lt (0)) ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
Nothing
```

`intercalate :: (Monoid m, Foldable f) => m -> f m -> m`

Curried version of `Z.intercalate`

. Concatenates the elements of the given structure, separating each pair of adjacent elements with the given separator.

See also `joinWith`

.

```
> S.intercalate (', ') ([])
""
> S.intercalate (', ') (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
"foo, bar, baz"
> S.intercalate (', ') (Nil)
""
> S.intercalate (', ') (Cons ('foo') (Cons ('bar') (Cons ('baz') (Nil))))
"foo, bar, baz"
> S.intercalate ([0, 0, 0]) ([])
[]
> S.intercalate ([0, 0, 0]) ([[1], [2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8], [9]])
[1, 0, 0, 0, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 9]
```

`foldMap :: (Monoid m, Foldable f) => TypeRep m -> (a -> m) -> f a -> m`

Curried version of `Z.foldMap`

. Deconstructs a foldable by mapping every element to a monoid and concatenating the results.

```
> S.foldMap (String) (f => f.name) ([Math.sin, Math.cos, Math.tan])
"sincostan"
> S.foldMap (Array) (x => [x + 1, x + 2]) ([10, 20, 30])
[11, 12, 21, 22, 31, 32]
```

`unfoldr :: (b -> Maybe (Pair a b)) -> b -> Array a`

Takes a function and a seed value, and returns an array generated by applying the function repeatedly. The array is initially empty. The function is initially applied to the seed value. Each application of the function should result in either:

Nothing, in which case the array is returned; or

Just a pair, in which case the first element is appended to the array and the function is applied to the second element.

```
> S.unfoldr (n => n < 1000 ? S.Just (S.Pair (n) (2 * n)) : S.Nothing) (1)
[1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512]
```

`range :: Integer -> Integer -> Array Integer`

Returns an array of consecutive integers starting with the first argument and ending with the second argument minus one. Returns `[]`

if the second argument is less than or equal to the first argument.

```
> S.range (0) (10)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
> S.range (-5) (0)
[-5, -4, -3, -2, -1]
> S.range (0) (-5)
[]
```

`groupBy :: (a -> a -> Boolean) -> Array a -> Array (Array a)`

Splits its array argument into an array of arrays of equal, adjacent elements. Equality is determined by the function provided as the first argument. Its behaviour can be surprising for functions that aren't reflexive, transitive, and symmetric (see equivalence relation).

Properties:

`forall f :: a -> a -> Boolean, xs :: Array a. S.join (S.groupBy (f) (xs)) = xs`

```
> S.groupBy (S.equals) ([1, 1, 2, 1, 1])
[[1, 1], [2], [1, 1]]
> S.groupBy (x => y => x + y === 0) ([2, -3, 3, 3, 3, 4, -4, 4])
[[2], [-3, 3, 3, 3], [4, -4], [4]]
```

`reverse :: (Applicative f, Foldable f, Monoid (f a)) => f a -> f a`

Reverses the elements of the given structure.

```
> S.reverse ([1, 2, 3])
[3, 2, 1]
> S.reverse (Cons (1) (Cons (2) (Cons (3) (Nil))))
Cons (3) (Cons (2) (Cons (1) (Nil)))
> S.pipe ([S.splitOn (''), S.reverse, S.joinWith ('')]) ('abc')
"cba"
```

`sort :: (Ord a, Applicative m, Foldable m, Monoid (m a)) => m a -> m a`

Performs a stable sort of the elements of the given structure, using `Z.lte`

for comparisons.

Properties:

`S.sort (S.sort (m)) = S.sort (m)`

(idempotence)

See also `sortBy`

.

```
> S.sort (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
["bar", "baz", "foo"]
> S.sort ([S.Left (4), S.Right (3), S.Left (2), S.Right (1)])
[Left (2), Left (4), Right (1), Right (3)]
```

`sortBy :: (Ord b, Applicative m, Foldable m, Monoid (m a)) => (a -> b) -> m a -> m a`

Performs a stable sort of the elements of the given structure, using `Z.lte`

to compare the values produced by applying the given function to each element of the structure.

Properties:

`S.sortBy (f) (S.sortBy (f) (m)) = S.sortBy (f) (m)`

(idempotence)

See also `sort`

.

```
> S.sortBy (S.prop ('rank')) ([{rank: 7, suit: 'spades'}, {rank: 5, suit: 'hearts'}, {rank: 2, suit: 'hearts'}, {rank: 5, suit: 'spades'}])
[{"rank": 2, "suit": "hearts"}, {"rank": 5, "suit": "hearts"}, {"rank": 5, "suit": "spades"}, {"rank": 7, "suit": "spades"}]
> S.sortBy (S.prop ('suit')) ([{rank: 7, suit: 'spades'}, {rank: 5, suit: 'hearts'}, {rank: 2, suit: 'hearts'}, {rank: 5, suit: 'spades'}])
[{"rank": 5, "suit": "hearts"}, {"rank": 2, "suit": "hearts"}, {"rank": 7, "suit": "spades"}, {"rank": 5, "suit": "spades"}]
```

If descending order is desired, one may use `Descending`

:

```
> S.sortBy (Descending) ([83, 97, 110, 99, 116, 117, 97, 114, 121])
[121, 117, 116, 114, 110, 99, 97, 97, 83]
```

`zip :: Array a -> Array b -> Array (Pair a b)`

Returns an array of pairs of corresponding elements from the given arrays. The length of the resulting array is equal to the length of the shorter input array.

See also `zipWith`

.

```
> S.zip (['a', 'b']) (['x', 'y', 'z'])
[Pair ("a") ("x"), Pair ("b") ("y")]
> S.zip ([1, 3, 5]) ([2, 4])
[Pair (1) (2), Pair (3) (4)]
```

`zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> Array a -> Array b -> Array c`

Returns the result of combining, pairwise, the given arrays using the given binary function. The length of the resulting array is equal to the length of the shorter input array.

See also `zip`

.

```
> S.zipWith (a => b => a + b) (['a', 'b']) (['x', 'y', 'z'])
["ax", "by"]
> S.zipWith (a => b => [a, b]) ([1, 3, 5]) ([2, 4])
[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
```

### Object

`prop :: String -> a -> b`

Takes a property name and an object with known properties and returns the value of the specified property. If for some reason the object lacks the specified property, a type error is thrown.

For accessing properties of uncertain objects, use `get`

instead. For accessing string map values by key, use `value`

instead.

```
> S.prop ('a') ({a: 1, b: 2})
1
```

`props :: Array String -> a -> b`

Takes a property path (an array of property names) and an object with known structure and returns the value at the given path. If for some reason the path does not exist, a type error is thrown.

For accessing property paths of uncertain objects, use `gets`

instead.

```
> S.props (['a', 'b', 'c']) ({a: {b: {c: 1}}})
1
```

`get :: (Any -> Boolean) -> String -> a -> Maybe b`

Takes a predicate, a property name, and an object and returns Just the value of the specified object property if it exists and the value satisfies the given predicate; Nothing otherwise.

See also `gets`

, `prop`

, and `value`

.

```
> S.get (S.is ($.Number)) ('x') ({x: 1, y: 2})
Just (1)
> S.get (S.is ($.Number)) ('x') ({x: '1', y: '2'})
Nothing
> S.get (S.is ($.Number)) ('x') ({})
Nothing
> S.get (S.is ($.Array ($.Number))) ('x') ({x: [1, 2, 3]})
Just ([1, 2, 3])
> S.get (S.is ($.Array ($.Number))) ('x') ({x: [1, 2, 3, null]})
Nothing
```

`gets :: (Any -> Boolean) -> Array String -> a -> Maybe b`

Takes a predicate, a property path (an array of property names), and an object and returns Just the value at the given path if such a path exists and the value satisfies the given predicate; Nothing otherwise.

See also `get`

.

```
> S.gets (S.is ($.Number)) (['a', 'b', 'c']) ({a: {b: {c: 42}}})
Just (42)
> S.gets (S.is ($.Number)) (['a', 'b', 'c']) ({a: {b: {c: '42'}}})
Nothing
> S.gets (S.is ($.Number)) (['a', 'b', 'c']) ({})
Nothing
```

### StrMap

StrMap is an abbreviation of *string map*. A string map is an object, such as `{foo: 1, bar: 2, baz: 3}`

, whose values are all members of the same type. Formally, a value is a member of type `StrMap a`

if its type identifier is `'Object'`

and the values of its enumerable own properties are all members of type `a`

.

`value :: String -> StrMap a -> Maybe a`

Retrieve the value associated with the given key in the given string map.

Formally, `value (k) (m)`

evaluates to `Just (m[k])`

if `k`

is an enumerable own property of `m`

; `Nothing`

otherwise.

```
> S.value ('foo') ({foo: 1, bar: 2})
Just (1)
> S.value ('bar') ({foo: 1, bar: 2})
Just (2)
> S.value ('baz') ({foo: 1, bar: 2})
Nothing
```

`singleton :: String -> a -> StrMap a`

Takes a string and a value of any type, and returns a string map with a single entry (mapping the key to the value).

```
> S.singleton ('foo') (42)
{"foo": 42}
```

`insert :: String -> a -> StrMap a -> StrMap a`

Takes a string, a value of any type, and a string map, and returns a string map comprising all the entries of the given string map plus the entry specified by the first two arguments (which takes precedence).

Equivalent to Haskell's `insert`

function. Similar to Clojure's `assoc`

function.

```
> S.insert ('c') (3) ({a: 1, b: 2})
{"a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3}
> S.insert ('a') (4) ({a: 1, b: 2})
{"a": 4, "b": 2}
```

`remove :: String -> StrMap a -> StrMap a`

Takes a string and a string map, and returns a string map comprising all the entries of the given string map except the one whose key matches the given string (if such a key exists).

Equivalent to Haskell's `delete`

function. Similar to Clojure's `dissoc`

function.

```
> S.remove ('c') ({a: 1, b: 2, c: 3})
{"a": 1, "b": 2}
> S.remove ('c') ({})
{}
```

`keys :: StrMap a -> Array String`

Returns the keys of the given string map, in arbitrary order.

```
> S.sort (S.keys ({b: 2, c: 3, a: 1}))
["a", "b", "c"]
```

`values :: StrMap a -> Array a`

Returns the values of the given string map, in arbitrary order.

```
> S.sort (S.values ({a: 1, c: 3, b: 2}))
[1, 2, 3]
```

`pairs :: StrMap a -> Array (Pair String a)`

Returns the key–value pairs of the given string map, in arbitrary order.

```
> S.sort (S.pairs ({b: 2, a: 1, c: 3}))
[Pair ("a") (1), Pair ("b") (2), Pair ("c") (3)]
```

`fromPairs :: Foldable f => f (Pair String a) -> StrMap a`

Returns a string map containing the key–value pairs specified by the given Foldable. If a key appears in multiple pairs, the rightmost pair takes precedence.

```
> S.fromPairs ([S.Pair ('a') (1), S.Pair ('b') (2), S.Pair ('c') (3)])
{"a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3}
> S.fromPairs ([S.Pair ('x') (1), S.Pair ('x') (2)])
{"x": 2}
```

### Number

`negate :: ValidNumber -> ValidNumber`

Negates its argument.

```
> S.negate (12.5)
-12.5
> S.negate (-42)
42
```

`add :: FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Returns the sum of two (finite) numbers.

```
> S.add (1) (1)
2
```

`sum :: Foldable f => f FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Returns the sum of the given array of (finite) numbers.

```
> S.sum ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
15
> S.sum ([])
0
> S.sum (S.Just (42))
42
> S.sum (S.Nothing)
0
```

`sub :: FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Takes a finite number `n`

and returns the *subtract n* function.

```
> S.map (S.sub (1)) ([1, 2, 3])
[0, 1, 2]
```

`mult :: FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Returns the product of two (finite) numbers.

```
> S.mult (4) (2)
8
```

`product :: Foldable f => f FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Returns the product of the given array of (finite) numbers.

```
> S.product ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
120
> S.product ([])
1
> S.product (S.Just (42))
42
> S.product (S.Nothing)
1
```

`div :: NonZeroFiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Takes a non-zero finite number `n`

and returns the *divide by n* function.

```
> S.map (S.div (2)) ([0, 1, 2, 3])
[0, 0.5, 1, 1.5]
```

`pow :: FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber -> FiniteNumber`

Takes a finite number `n`

and returns the *power of n* function.

```
> S.map (S.pow (2)) ([-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3])
[9, 4, 1, 0, 1, 4, 9]
> S.map (S.pow (0.5)) ([1, 4, 9, 16, 25])
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
```

`mean :: Foldable f => f FiniteNumber -> Maybe FiniteNumber`

Returns the mean of the given array of (finite) numbers.

```
> S.mean ([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
Just (3)
> S.mean ([])
Nothing
> S.mean (S.Just (42))
Just (42)
> S.mean (S.Nothing)
Nothing
```

### Integer

`even :: Integer -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given integer is even; `false`

if it is odd.

```
> S.even (42)
true
> S.even (99)
false
```

`odd :: Integer -> Boolean`

Returns `true`

if the given integer is odd; `false`

if it is even.

```
> S.odd (99)
true
> S.odd (42)
false
```

### Parse

`parseDate :: String -> Maybe ValidDate`

Takes a string `s`

and returns `Just (new Date (s))`

if `new Date (s)`

evaluates to a `ValidDate`

value; Nothing otherwise.

As noted in #488, this function's behaviour is unspecified for some inputs! MDN warns against using the `Date`

constructor to parse date strings:

Note:parsing of date strings with the`Date`

constructor […] is strongly discouraged due to browser differences and inconsistencies. Support for RFC 2822 format strings is by convention only. Support for ISO 8601 formats differs in that date-only strings (e.g. "1970-01-01") are treated as UTC, not local.

```
> S.parseDate ('2011-01-19T17:40:00Z')
Just (new Date ("2011-01-19T17:40:00.000Z"))
> S.parseDate ('today')
Nothing
```

`parseFloat :: String -> Maybe Number`

Takes a string and returns Just the number represented by the string if it does in fact represent a number; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.parseFloat ('-123.45')
Just (-123.45)
> S.parseFloat ('foo.bar')
Nothing
```

`parseInt :: Radix -> String -> Maybe Integer`

Takes a radix (an integer between 2 and 36 inclusive) and a string, and returns Just the number represented by the string if it does in fact represent a number in the base specified by the radix; Nothing otherwise.

This function is stricter than `parseInt`

: a string is considered to represent an integer only if all its non-prefix characters are members of the character set specified by the radix.

```
> S.parseInt (10) ('-42')
Just (-42)
> S.parseInt (16) ('0xFF')
Just (255)
> S.parseInt (16) ('0xGG')
Nothing
```

`parseJson :: (Any -> Boolean) -> String -> Maybe a`

Takes a predicate and a string that may or may not be valid JSON, and returns Just the result of applying `JSON.parse`

to the string *if* the result satisfies the predicate; Nothing otherwise.

```
> S.parseJson (S.is ($.Array ($.Integer))) ('[')
Nothing
> S.parseJson (S.is ($.Array ($.Integer))) ('["1","2","3"]')
Nothing
> S.parseJson (S.is ($.Array ($.Integer))) ('[0,1.5,3,4.5]')
Nothing
> S.parseJson (S.is ($.Array ($.Integer))) ('[1,2,3]')
Just ([1, 2, 3])
```

### RegExp

`regex :: RegexFlags -> String -> RegExp`

Takes a RegexFlags and a pattern, and returns a RegExp.

```
> S.regex ('g') (':\\d+:')
/:\d+:/g
```

`regexEscape :: String -> String`

Takes a string that may contain regular expression metacharacters, and returns a string with those metacharacters escaped.

Properties:

`forall s :: String. S.test (S.regex ('') (S.regexEscape (s))) (s) = true`

```
> S.regexEscape ('-=*{XYZ}*=-')
"\\-=\\*\\{XYZ\\}\\*=\\-"
```

`test :: RegExp -> String -> Boolean`

Takes a pattern and a string, and returns `true`

iff the pattern matches the string.

```
> S.test (/^a/) ('abacus')
true
> S.test (/^a/) ('banana')
false
```

`match :: NonGlobalRegExp -> String -> Maybe { match :: String, groups :: Array (Maybe String) }`

Takes a pattern and a string, and returns Just a match record if the pattern matches the string; Nothing otherwise.

`groups :: Array (Maybe String)`

acknowledges the existence of optional capturing groups.

Properties:

`forall p :: Pattern, s :: String. S.head (S.matchAll (S.regex ('g') (p)) (s)) = S.match (S.regex ('') (p)) (s)`

See also `matchAll`

.

```
> S.match (/(good)?bye/) ('goodbye')
Just ({"groups": [Just ("good")], "match": "goodbye"})
> S.match (/(good)?bye/) ('bye')
Just ({"groups": [Nothing], "match": "bye"})
```

`matchAll :: GlobalRegExp -> String -> Array { match :: String, groups :: Array (Maybe String) }`

Takes a pattern and a string, and returns an array of match records.

`groups :: Array (Maybe String)`

acknowledges the existence of optional capturing groups.

See also `match`

.

```
> S.matchAll (/@([a-z]+)/g) ('Hello, world!')
[]
> S.matchAll (/@([a-z]+)/g) ('Hello, @foo! Hello, @bar! Hello, @baz!')
[{"groups": [Just ("foo")], "match": "@foo"}, {"groups": [Just ("bar")], "match": "@bar"}, {"groups": [Just ("baz")], "match": "@baz"}]
```

### String

`toUpper :: String -> String`

Returns the upper-case equivalent of its argument.

See also `toLower`

.

```
> S.toUpper ('ABC def 123')
"ABC DEF 123"
```

`toLower :: String -> String`

Returns the lower-case equivalent of its argument.

See also `toUpper`

.

```
> S.toLower ('ABC def 123')
"abc def 123"
```

`trim :: String -> String`

Strips leading and trailing whitespace characters.

```
> S.trim ('\t\t foo bar \n')
"foo bar"
```

`stripPrefix :: String -> String -> Maybe String`

Returns Just the portion of the given string (the second argument) left after removing the given prefix (the first argument) if the string starts with the prefix; Nothing otherwise.

See also `stripSuffix`

.

```
> S.stripPrefix ('https://') ('https://sanctuary.js.org')
Just ("sanctuary.js.org")
> S.stripPrefix ('https://') ('http://sanctuary.js.org')
Nothing
```

`stripSuffix :: String -> String -> Maybe String`

Returns Just the portion of the given string (the second argument) left after removing the given suffix (the first argument) if the string ends with the suffix; Nothing otherwise.

See also `stripPrefix`

.

```
> S.stripSuffix ('.md') ('README.md')
Just ("README")
> S.stripSuffix ('.md') ('README')
Nothing
```

`words :: String -> Array String`

Takes a string and returns the array of words the string contains (words are delimited by whitespace characters).

See also `unwords`

.

```
> S.words (' foo bar baz ')
["foo", "bar", "baz"]
```

`unwords :: Array String -> String`

Takes an array of words and returns the result of joining the words with separating spaces.

See also `words`

.

```
> S.unwords (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
"foo bar baz"
```

`lines :: String -> Array String`

Takes a string and returns the array of lines the string contains (lines are delimited by newlines: `'\n'`

or `'\r\n'`

or `'\r'`

). The resulting strings do not contain newlines.

See also `unlines`

.

```
> S.lines ('foo\nbar\nbaz\n')
["foo", "bar", "baz"]
```

`unlines :: Array String -> String`

Takes an array of lines and returns the result of joining the lines after appending a terminating line feed (`'\n'`

) to each.

See also `lines`

.

```
> S.unlines (['foo', 'bar', 'baz'])
"foo\nbar\nbaz\n"
```

`splitOn :: String -> String -> Array String`

Returns the substrings of its second argument separated by occurrences of its first argument.

See also `joinWith`

and `splitOnRegex`

.

```
> S.splitOn ('::') ('foo::bar::baz')
["foo", "bar", "baz"]
```

`splitOnRegex :: GlobalRegExp -> String -> Array String`

Takes a pattern and a string, and returns the result of splitting the string at every non-overlapping occurrence of the pattern.

Properties:

`forall s :: String, t :: String. S.joinWith (s) (S.splitOnRegex (S.regex ('g') (S.regexEscape (s))) (t)) = t`

See also `splitOn`

.

```
> S.splitOnRegex (/[,;][ ]*/g) ('foo, bar, baz')
["foo", "bar", "baz"]
> S.splitOnRegex (/[,;][ ]*/g) ('foo;bar;baz')
["foo", "bar", "baz"]
```

© 2020 Sanctuary

© 2016 Plaid Technologies, Inc.

Licensed under the MIT License.

https://sanctuary.js.org/